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Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 122–146 | Cite as

Process Analysis of Mulberry (Morus alba) Leaf Extract Encapsulation: Effects of Spray Drying Conditions on Bioactive Encapsulated Powder Quality

  • William Tchabo
  • Yongkun MaEmail author
  • Giscard Kuate Kaptso
  • Emmanuel Kwaw
  • Rosine Wafo Cheno
  • Lulu Xiao
  • Richard Osae
  • Meng Wu
  • Muhammad Farooq
Original Paper
  • 69 Downloads

Abstract

A 32 full-factorial design coupled with three-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation was employed for the process analysis of spray drying encapsulation of mulberry leaf extract. The statistical outcomes obtained were reliable and efficient in investigating the effect of inlet temperature, carrier material type, and carrier concentration on the physicochemical properties of encapsulated biocompound powders. The biocompound retention and entrapment efficiency were found to be chiefly dependent on the carrier type. Moreover, the carrier concentration and inlet temperature significantly (p < 0.05) altered the physical properties of the encapsulated biocompound powders irrespective of the type of carrier used. Furthermore, the antiradical activities were found to be associated with the biocompound profile. The optimum spray drying encapsulating conditions were determined to be 140 °C/0.75% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and 137 °C/12% maltodextrin. Therefore, the encapsulated biocompound powder produced with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose was characterized by its flavonol content (209.10 mg/g), gamma-aminobutyric acid content (3.31 mg/g), cupric ion reducing capacity (43.17 mM/g of Trolox), ferric reducing antioxidant power capacity (182.03 mM/g of Trolox), powder recovery (61.85%), particle density (1.75 g/cm3), bulk density (0.35 g/cm3), tapped density (0.46 g/cm3), wettability time (49.40 s), hygroscopicity (18.48%), glass transition temperature (114.35 °C), and greenness (− 4.90). The encapsulated biocompound powder produced with maltodextrin was typified by its phenolic acid content (79.22 mg/g), 1-deoxynojirimycin content (13.61 mg/g), 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (25.37 mM/g of Trolox), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (74.81 mM/g of Trolox), particle size (2.24 μm), Hausner ratio (1.06), Carr index (5.48%), porosity (56.47%), water solubility index (97.15%), moisture content (2.75%), and water activity (0.15).

Keywords

Spray drying Mulberry leaf Encapsulation Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose Maltodextrin 

Abbreviations

CMC

Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose

MD

Maltodextrin

CHA

Chlorogenic acid

CA

Caffeic acid

K7G

Kaempferol-7-O-glucoside

Q3R

Quercetin-3-rutinose

Q3G

Quercetin-3-O-glucoside

K3R

Kaempferol 3-(6-rhamnosylglucoside)

Q3M

Quercetin 3-(6-malonylglucoside)

K3G

Kaempferol-3-glucoside

K3M

Kaempferol 3-(6-malonylglucoside)

DNJ

1-Deoxynojirimycin

GABA

Gamma-aminobutyric acid

ABTS

2,2-Azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)

CUPRAC

Cupric ion reducing capacity

DPPH

1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl

FRAP

Ferric reducing antioxidant power capacity

AA

Antiradical activities

BE

Biocompound extract

EBP

Encapsulated biocompound powder

BR

Biocompound retention

PR

Powder recovery

PS

Particle size

PD

Particle density

BD

Bulk density

TD

Tapped density

HR

Hausner ratio

CI

Carr index

PO

Porosity

WSI

Water solubility index

WET

Wettability time

MC

Moisture content

HG

Hygroscopicity

GT

Glass transition temperature

WA

Water activity

L*

Lightness

a*

Redness

b*

Yellowness

C*

Chroma

Hue

CMT

Carrier material type

CC

Carrier concentration

IT

Inlet temperature

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • William Tchabo
    • 1
  • Yongkun Ma
    • 1
    Email author
  • Giscard Kuate Kaptso
    • 2
  • Emmanuel Kwaw
    • 1
  • Rosine Wafo Cheno
    • 3
  • Lulu Xiao
    • 1
  • Richard Osae
    • 1
  • Meng Wu
    • 1
  • Muhammad Farooq
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Food and Biological EngineeringJiangsu UniversityZhenjiangPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Social Economy and Family Management, Higher Technical Teacher’s Training College (HTTTC)University of BueaKumbaCameroon
  3. 3.Health Policy and ManagementJiangsu UniversityZhenjiangPeople’s Republic of China

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