Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 11, Issue 5, pp 979–990 | Cite as

Modelling of Thermal Sterilisation of High-Moisture Snack Foods: Feasibility Analysis and Optimization

  • Jing Ai
  • Torsten Witt
  • Michael J. Gidley
  • Mark S. Turner
  • Jason R. Stokes
  • Mauricio R. Bonilla
Original Paper
  • 96 Downloads

Abstract

High-moisture snacks, such as steamed buns and rice cakes, are traditional and popular in Asian countries. However, their shelf life is short, primarily due to microbial spoilage. Current manufacturing methods address this shortcoming through the use of chemical preservatives. To satisfy consumers’ demand for preservative-free food, thermal sterilisation of a model high-moisture snack (steamed rice cakes) is investigated in this work. Bacillus cereus spores are heat-resistant pathogens typically found in rice products; hence, they constitute a suitable candidate to assess the effectiveness of thermal sterilisation. A validated combination of predicted temperature profile of rice cakes based on thermal properties extracted experimentally with thermal inactivation kinetics of B. cereus spores allows us to assess the sensitivity of processing conditions to sterilisation efficiency. Using both experimentation and modelling, it is shown that enhancement of heat transfer by improving convection from the heating medium (either water or steam) has a limited effect on inactivation due to the intrinsic kinetics of spore inactivation.

Keywords

Heat transfer model Rice cakes Spore thermal inactivation Inactivation kinetics High-moisture snacks 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by the ARC Industrial Transformation Training Centre ‘Agents of Change’ (IC130100011).

References

  1. Abdul Ghani, A. G., Farid, M. M., Chen, X. D., & Richards, P. (1999). An investigation of deactivation of bacteria in a canned liquid food during sterilization using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Journal of Food Engineering, 42(4), 207–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdul Ghani, A. G., Farid, M. M., Chen, X. D., & Richards, P. (2001). Thermal sterilization of canned food in a 3-D pouch using computational fluid dynamics. Journal of Food Engineering, 48(2), 147–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abdul Ghani, A. G., Farid, M. M., & Chen, X. D. (2002). Theoretical and experimental investigation of the thermal inactivation of Bacillus stearothermophilus in food pouches. Journal of Food Engineering, 51(3), 221–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Al-Baali, A. A. G., & Farid, M. M. (2007). Theoretical analysis of thermal sterilization of food in 3-D pouches. In G. V. Barbosa-Canovas (Ed.), Sterilization of food in retort pouches (1st ed., pp. 93–115). New York: Springer Science & Business Media.Google Scholar
  5. Archer, J., Jervis, E. T., Bird, J., & Gaze, J. E. (1998). Heat resistance of Salmonella weltevreden in low-moisture environments. Journal of Food Protection, 61(8), 969–973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Augusto, P. E. D., Pinheiro, T. F., & Cristianini, M. (2010). Using computational fluid-dynamics (CFD) for the evaluation of beer pasteurization: effect of orientation of cans. Food Science and Technology (Campinas), 30(4), 980–986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bhowmik, S. R., & Tandon, S. (1987). A method for thermal process evaluation of conduction heated foods in retortable pouches. Journal of Food Science, 52(1), 202–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brown, M. R. W., & Melling, J. (2012). Inhibition and destruction of microorganisms by heat. In W. Hugo (Ed.), Inhibition and destruction of the microbial cell. 1 edn. P^pp (pp. 1–37). New York: Academic Press Inc..Google Scholar
  9. Byrne, B., Dunne, G., & Bolton, D. (2006). Thermal inactivation of Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens vegetative cells and spores in pork luncheon roll. Food Microbiology, 23(8), 803–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Casadei, M., Ingram, R., Hitchings, E., Archer, J., & Gaze, J. (2001). Heat resistance of Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium and Lactobacillus delbrueckii in relation to pH and ethanol. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 63(1), 125–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Casolari, A. (1988). Microbial death. In M. J. Bazin & J. I. Prosser (Eds.), Physiological models in microbiology (Vol. 2, pp. 1–44). Boca Raton: CRC Press Inc..Google Scholar
  12. Chen, H., & Hoover, D. G. (2003). Modeling the combined effect of high hydrostatic pressure and mild heat on the inactivation kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A in whole milk. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies., 4(1), 25–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. FAO. (2015). Code hygienic practice for low-moisture foods. In Vol CAC/RCP 75–2015 (pp. 1–21). New York: Codex Alimentarius Commision.Google Scholar
  14. FDA. (2012). Bacillus cereus and other Bacillus species. In K. A. Lampel, S. Al-Khaldi, & S. M. Cahill (Eds.), Bad bug book: Foodborne pathogenic microorganisms and natural toxins handbook (2nd ed., pp. 93–96). Silver Spring: US Food and Drug Administration.Google Scholar
  15. Gaillard, S., Leguérinel, I., & Mafart, P. (1998). Model for combined effects of temperature, pH and water activity on thermal inactivation of Bacillus cereus spores. Journal of Food Science, 63(5), 887–889.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gong, L., Wang, Y., Cheng, X., Zhang, R., & Zhang, H. (2014). A novel effective medium theory for modelling the thermal conductivity of porous materials. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 68, 295–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. González, I., López, M., Martınez, S., Bernardo, A., & González, J. (1999). Thermal inactivation of Bacillus cereus spores formed at different temperatures. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 51(1), 81–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Grijspeerdt, K., Hazarika, B., & Vucinic, D. (2003). Application of computational fluid dynamics to model the hydrodynamics of plate heat exchangers for milk processing. Journal of Food Engineering, 57(3), 237–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Heldman, D. R. (2005). Prediction models for thermophysical properties of foods. In J. M. Irudayaraj (Ed.), Food processing operations modeling: Design and analysis (Vol. 107, pp. 1–22). New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  20. Iciek, J., Papiewska, A., & Molska, M. (2006). Inactivation of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores during thermal processing. Journal of Food Engineering, 77(3), 406–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Incropera, F., & DeWitt, D. (1985). Transient conduction. In Introduction to heat transfer (3rd ed., pp. 212–231). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  22. Jeong, S., Marks, B. P., & Ryser, E. T. (2011). Quantifying the performance of Pediococcus sp.(NRRL B-2354: Enterococcus faecium) as a nonpathogenic surrogate for Salmonella Enteritidis PT30 during moist-air convection heating of almonds. Journal of Food Protection, 74(4), 603–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ji, Y., Zhu, K., Qian, H., & Zhou, H. (2007). Microbiological characteristics of cake prepared from rice flour and sticky rice flour. Food Control, 18(12), 1507–1511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kızıltaş, S., Erdoğdu, F., & Koray Palazoğlu, T. (2010). Simulation of heat transfer for solid–liquid food mixtures in cans and model validation under pasteurization conditions. Journal of Food Engineering, 97(4), 449–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Landauer, R. (1952). The electrical resistance of binary metallic mixtures. Journal of Applied Physics, 23(7), 779–784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mafart, P., Couvert, O., Gaillard, S., & Leguerinel, I. (2002). On calculating sterility in thermal preservation methods: application of the Weibull frequency distribution model. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 72(1–2), 107–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Marra, F., & Romano, V. (2003). A mathematical model to study the influence of wireless temperature sensor during assessment of canned food sterilization. Journal of Food Engineering, 59(2–3), 245–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mattea, M., Urbicain, M. J., & Rotstein, E. (1986). Prediction of thermal conductivity of vegetable foods by the effective medium theory. Journal of Food Science, 51(1), 113–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mazas, M., Martínez, S., López, M., Alvarez, A. B., & Martin, R. (1999). Thermal inactivation of Bacillus cereus spores affected by the solutes used to control water activity of the heating medium. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 53(1), 61–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mohsenin NN (1980) Thermal properties of foods and agricultural materials. New York USAGoogle Scholar
  31. Moraga, N., Torres, A., Guarda, A., & Galotto, M. J. (2011). Non-Newtonian canned liquid food, unsteady fluid mechanics and heat transfer prediction for pasteurization and sterilization. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 34(6), 2000–2025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mounir, S., Albitar, N., & Allaf, K. (2014). DIC decontamination of solid and powder foodstuffs. In T. Allaf & K. Allaf (Eds.), Instant controlled pressure drop (D.I.C.) in food processing: From fundamental to industrial applications (pp. 83–94). New York: Springer New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Muramatsu, Y., Tagawa, A., Sakaguchi, E., & Kasai, T. (2007). Prediction of thermal conductivity of kernels and a packed bed of brown rice. Journal of Food Engineering, 80(1), 241–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nazarowec-White, M., McKellar, R. C., & Piyasena, P. (1999). Predictive modelling of Enterobacter sakazakii inactivation in bovine milk during high-temperature short-time pasteurization. Food Research International, 32(5), 375–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Novak, J. S., Call, J., Tomasula, P., & Luchansky, J. B. (2005). An assessment of pasteurization treatment of water, media, and milk with respect to Bacillus spores. Journal of Food Protection, 68(4), 751–757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Okahisa, N., Inatsu, Y., Juneja, V. K., & Kawamoto, S. (2008). Evaluation and control of the risk of foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria present in Awa-Uirou, a sticky rice cake containing sweet red bean paste. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, 5(3), 351–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ovrutskaia, I., Novitskaia, V., & Obodovskaia, N. (1980). Survival rate of Clostridium botulinim and Clostridium perfringens spores in dry mashed potatoes in the form of groats and flakes. Konservnaia i ovoshchesushil'naia promyshlennost' (8), 37-39.Google Scholar
  38. Peleg, M. (2000). Microbial survival curves—the reality of flat “shoulders” and absolute thermal death times. Food Research International, 33(7), 531–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pietrak, K., & Wisniewski, T. S. (2015). A review of models for effective thermal conductivity of composite materials. Journal of Power Technologies, 95(1), 14.Google Scholar
  40. Rajkovic, A. (2014). Microbial toxins and low level of foodborne exposure. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 38(2), 149–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ramesh, M. (2000). Effect of cooking and drying on the thermal conductivity of rice. International Journal of Food Properties, 3(1), 77–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Reidy, G. A., & Rippen, A. L. (1971). Methods for determining thermal conductivity in foods. Transactions of the ASAE, 14(2), 248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Stephan, K., & Laesecke, A. (1985). The thermal conductivity of fluid air. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, 14(1), 227–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sweat, V. E. (1995). Thermal properties of foods. In M. A. Rao & R. SSH (Eds.), Engineering properties of foods (2nd ed., pp. 99–138). New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  45. Van Asselt, E. D., & Zwietering, M. H. (2006). A systematic approach to determine global thermal inactivation parameters for various food pathogens. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 107(1), 73–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. VanCauwenberge, J., Bothast, R., & Kwolek, W. (1981). Thermal inactivation of eight Salmonella serotypes on dry corn flour. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 42(4), 688–691.Google Scholar
  47. Xiong, R., Xie, G., Edmondson, A., & Sheard, M. (1999). A mathematical model for bacterial inactivation. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 46(1), 45–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Nutrition and Food Sciences, Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food InnovationUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.School of Agriculture and Food SciencesUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  3. 3.School of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  4. 4.Basque Centre for Applied Mathematics (BCAM)BilbaoSpain

Personalised recommendations