Stem Cell Therapy in Cerebrovascular Disease
Purpose of review
The purpose of this article is to provide a review of state-of-the-art cellular therapy in cerebrovascular diseases by discussing published and ongoing clinical trials.
In spite of the challenge in translating the success of cellular therapy in acute strokes from preclinical models to clinical trials, early phase clinical trial have recently shown promise in overcoming these challenges. Various stem cell types and doses are being studied, different routes of administration are under investigation, as well as defining the optimal time window to intervene. In addition, experimental methods to enhance cellular therapy, such as ischemic preconditioning, are evolving.
After the failure of neuroprotectants in cerebrovascular diseases, researchers have been keen to provide a way of replacement of damaged brain tissue and to promote recovery in order to achieve better outcomes. The field has progressed from intravenous delivery in the 24- to 36-h time window to later intracerebral administration in chronic stroke in clinical trials. New optimism in acute stroke care fostered by the success of mechanical thrombectomy will hopefully extend into cell therapy to promote recovery.
KeywordsStem cells Ischemic stroke Cell therapy Exosomes
We thank Coby Polonsky M.S., Department of Medical Illustration at Augusta University for creating the figure artwork.
Compliance With Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Dr. David C. Hess has a patent on MultiStem in Neurological Disease with Athersys, Inc.
Dr. David C. Hess reports grants from ARUNA.
Dr. Michael I. Nahhas declares that he has no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
References and Recommended Reading
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: •• Of major importance
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