Disorders of Vergence Eye Movements
Purpose of review
The purpose of this review is to summarize current understanding regarding disorders of gaze with comitant ocular misalignment at distance or near and a full range of extraocular movement. Emphasis is placed on clinical features that may be used to differentiate underlying neurologic disease from the more common benign causes. The approach to the diagnostic evaluation and treatment is discussed.
Randomized controlled trials and Cochrane review suggest the superiority of formal office-based vision therapy in treating convergence insufficiency in children. Divergence insufficiency in older adults is a common disorder caused by involution of connective tissues in the orbit. In contrast, divergence insufficiency in children may be a harbinger of central nervous system disease, particularly intracranial tumors.
Disorders of vergence are common in pediatric and aging adult populations. Benign causes are common but appropriate history and exam emphasizing ocular motility is essential to rule out more concerning diagnoses. Atypical presentations should prompt comprehensive evaluation including neuroimaging. Treatment of benign causes of vergence abnormalities should have a stepwise approach, beginning with the least invasive available intervention, though some patients may require surgery.
KeywordsConvergence insufficiency Convergence spasm Divergence insufficiency Diplopia
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Eric R. Eggenberger and Anthony J. Brune III declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
References and Recommended Reading
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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