Overlap Between GERD and Functional Esophageal Disorders—a Pivotal Mechanism for Treatment Failure
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ᅟRefractory GERD is very common, and while many different underlying mechanisms have been identified, the main focus has remained on residual reflux (acidic or non-acidic). Recently, Rome IV introduced two new concepts with important impact on patients with refractory GERD. They include the introduction of the reflux hypersensitivity group and the proposal that GERD can overlap with a functional esophageal disorder. Recent studies have demonstrated that the latter affects approximately three quarters of the GERD patients who failed PPI once daily.
KeywordsGERD Reflux hypersensitivity Functional heartburn PPI Heartburn Esophagus
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Conflict of interest
Ofer Fass declares that he has no conflict of interest. Ronnie Fass declares that he is an advisor for Ironwood, Mecleri Therapeutics, Takeda and Chinoin, speaker for Ostrazeneca, Takeda, Cadilla and Diversitek and receive research money from Ironwood.
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This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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