Clinical Applications of MRA 4D-Flow
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Purpose of review
Four-dimensional (4D)-Flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-directional velocity-encoded magnetic resonance that provides flow velocity data within a volumetric region across the cardiac cycle (CC). The goals of this paper are to review the current clinical applications of this technique; provide an overview of the general physics; discuss key points from the expert consensus document; and present recent advances in the field. The advantages and disadvantages of 4D-Flow CMR in comparison with the standard and gold standard methods are summarized.
4D-Flow CMR offers unique insights into cardiac and circulatory physiology with an ability to quantify advanced hemodynamic parameters in a variety of pathologic entities including aortic and pulmonary artery diseases, valvular heart disease, complex congenital heart disease, and extra-thoracic cardiovascular diseases. Recent large cohort studies highlight how it provides information that has clinical impact beyond a better understanding of the disease and that will permit better and more timely management and prognosis.
4D-Flow CMR provides unique qualitative and quantitative flow dynamics information and its impact on cardiac chambers, vessel walls, and myocardium. As scan acquisition and post-processing of 4D-Flow CMR become faster and simpler, the investigational and clinical opportunities will expand dramatically.
KeywordsMRA 4D-Flow 4D Flow CMR Magnetic resonance Phase contrast Blood flow Aorta
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
References and Recommended Reading
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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