Extended Reality in Medical Practice
- 39 Downloads
Purpose of review
Advances in display technology and computing have led to new devices capable of overlaying digital information onto the physical world or incorporating aspects of the physical world into virtual scenes. These combinations of digital and physical environments are referred to as extended realities. Extended reality (XR) devices offer many advantages for medical applications including realistic 3D visualization and touch-free interfaces that can be used in sterile environments. This review introduces extended reality and describes how it can be applied to medical practice.
The 3D displays of extended reality devices are valuable in situations where spatial information such as patient anatomy and medical instrument position is important. Applications that take advantage of these 3D capabilities include teaching and pre-operative planning. The utility of extended reality during interventional procedures has been demonstrated with through 3D visualizations of patient anatomy, scar visualization, and real-time catheter tracking with touch-free software control.
Extended reality devices have been applied to education, pre-procedural planning, and cardiac interventions. These devices excel in settings where traditional devices are difficult to use, such as in the cardiac catheterization lab. New applications of extended reality in cardiology will continue to emerge as the technology improves.
KeywordsExtended reality devices Informatics Display technology
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Christopher Andrews, Michael K. Southworth, Jennifer N. A. Silva, and Jonathan R. Silva each report grants from Children’s Discovery Institute and National Institute of Health.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
References and Recommended Reading
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
- 1.The Stanford virtual heart – revolutionizing education on congenital heart defects [Internet]. Available from: https://www.stanfordchildrens.org/en/innovation/virtual-reality/stanford-virtual-heart
- 3.• Silva JN, Southworth MK, Dalal A, Van Hare GF. Improving visualization and interaction during transcatheter ablation using an augmented reality system: first-in-human experience (abstr). Circulation. 2017;136 Our prototype electrophysiology mapping software developed for the Microsoft HoloLens demonstrates the power of XR by visualizing patient-specific 3D anatomy and real-time catheter locations with a completely sterile user interface.Google Scholar
- 5.Doug’s great demo 1968 [Internet]. Available from: http://www.dougengelbart.org/content/view/209/448/
- 6.Over 50 years of Moore’s law [Internet]. Available from: https://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/silicon-innovations/moores-law-technology.html
- 7.Milgram P, Kishino F. A taxonomy of mixed reality visual displays. IEICE Trans Inf Syst. 1994;E77-D(12):1321–9.Google Scholar
- 8.What is mixed reality? [Internet]. Available from: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/mixed-reality/mixed-reality
- 9.HoloAnatomy app wins top honors [Internet]. Available from: http://engineering.case.edu/HoloAnatomy-honors
- 10.Peterson DC, Mlynarczyk GSA. Analysis of traditional versus three-dimensional augmented curriculum on anatomical learning outcome measures. Anat Sci Educ. 2016;9:529–36. https://doi.org/10.1002/ase.1612
- 11.Chan F, Aguirre S, Bauser H. Head tracked stereoscopic pre-surgical evaluation of major aortopulmonary collateral arteries in the newborns. Chicago: Paper presented at: Radiological Society of North America 2013 Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting; 2013.Google Scholar
- 12.Jang J, Tschabrunn CM, Barkagan M, Anter E. Three-dimensional holographic visualization of high-resolution myocardial scar on HoloLens. PLoS One. 2018;13:e0205188. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0205188
- 13.Kiss G, Palmer CL, Torp H. Patient adapted augmented reality system for real-time echocardiographic applications. In: Linte CA, Yaniv Z, Fallavollita P, editors. Augmented environments for computer-assisted interventions. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 145–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 18.Statt N. Realmax’s prototype AR goggles fix one of the HoloLens’ biggest issues. Available from: https://www.theverge.com/2018/1/9/16872110/realmax-ar-goggles-microsoft-hololens-prototype-field-of-view-ces-2018
- 19.Vukicevic M, Mosadegh B, Min JK, Little SH. Cardiac 3D printing and its future directions. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2017;10:171–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmg.2016.12.001
- 22.Stetten G, Wu B, Klatzky R, Galeotti J, Siegel M, Lee R, et al. Hand-held force magnifier for surgical instruments 2011;90–100.Google Scholar
- 24.• Peters TM, Linte CA, Yaniv Z, Williams J. Mixed and Augmented Reality in Medicine: CRC Press; 2018. Readers interested in a thorough treatment of XR in medical practice should consider this book.Google Scholar