Renal Artery Denervation for Hypertension

  • Lauren S. RanardEmail author
  • Rajesh V. Swaminathan
Coronary Artery Disease (D Feldman and V Voudris, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Coronary Artery Disease


Purpose of review

Hypertension (HTN) has a growing impact, already affecting over 1 billion people. An estimated 2–16% of those with HTN have resistant HTN. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is a recognized contributor to the pathophysiology of resistant HTN. Current hypertensive pharmacotherapy has not fully targeted the SNS; therefore, the SNS has become a prominent research therapeutic target. This review summarizes the evidence and rationale behind renal denervation (RDN) therapy and the technology available.

Recent findings

Prior to the SYMPLICITY HTN-3 clinical trial, trials found RDN to be an effective procedure to control resistant hypertension. The failure of SYMPLICITY HTN-3 to meet its primary efficacy endpoint sparked further studies to address potential shortcomings. The subsequent SPYRAL program trials demonstrated efficacy of RDN therapy in a controlled manner; however, they were not adequately powered. Ongoing research is examining new, innovative RDN technology as well as defining appropriate patients to target for treatment.


The data currently available for RDN in HTN and other states of SNS activation suffer from potential biases and limitations, highlighting the need for continued exploration. Contemporary studies are more promising and hypothesis-generating. Future trials and continued device innovation will be crucial for understanding the clinical applications of RDN therapy.


Renal denervation Resistant hypertension Sympathetic nervous system 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Lauren S. Ranard and Rajesh V. Swaminathan declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References and Recommended Reading

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Duke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Duke Clinical Research InstituteDurhamUSA

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