Workup and Management of Native and Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis

  • Aref A. Bin Abdulhak
  • Abdul H. Qazi
  • Imad M. TleyjehEmail author
Valvular Heart Disease (J Dal-Bianco, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Valvular Heart Disease


Infective endocarditis (IE) is associated with significant serious adverse outcomes including death. IE usually presents with diverse clinical picture and syndromic diagnoses including heart failure, stroke, and peripheral embolization. Given variable, vague, and syndromic presentations, the diagnosis of IE may be delayed for days to weeks. Maintaining a high index of suspicion among clinicians is the key to early recognition of the disease and prompt initiation of antimicrobial therapy to prevent IE-associated mortality and morbidity. Blood culture and echocardiography remain essential tools in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis. However, advances in molecular techniques, serology testing, computed tomography scan, and nuclear medicine have led to growth in the available tools that may aid in early diagnosis of infective endocarditis. Antimicrobial agents are the mainstay of IE therapy; however, as many as 50% of endocarditis cases will undergo valve surgery, even on an urgent or emergent basis.


Infective endocarditis Heart failure Valve surgery Stroke 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aref A. Bin Abdulhak
    • 1
  • Abdul H. Qazi
    • 1
  • Imad M. Tleyjeh
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of Iowa Carver College of MedicineIowa CityUSA
  2. 2.Division of Infectious DiseasesMayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  3. 3.Division of EpidemiologyMayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  4. 4.Department of Medicine, Infectious Diseases SectionKing Fahad Medical CityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  5. 5.College of MedicineAl Faisal UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

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