Workup and Management of Native and Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis
Infective endocarditis (IE) is associated with significant serious adverse outcomes including death. IE usually presents with diverse clinical picture and syndromic diagnoses including heart failure, stroke, and peripheral embolization. Given variable, vague, and syndromic presentations, the diagnosis of IE may be delayed for days to weeks. Maintaining a high index of suspicion among clinicians is the key to early recognition of the disease and prompt initiation of antimicrobial therapy to prevent IE-associated mortality and morbidity. Blood culture and echocardiography remain essential tools in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis. However, advances in molecular techniques, serology testing, computed tomography scan, and nuclear medicine have led to growth in the available tools that may aid in early diagnosis of infective endocarditis. Antimicrobial agents are the mainstay of IE therapy; however, as many as 50% of endocarditis cases will undergo valve surgery, even on an urgent or emergent basis.
KeywordsInfective endocarditis Heart failure Valve surgery Stroke
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The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
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References and Recommended Reading
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