Autonomic Regulation and Ventricular Arrhythmias

  • Lingjin Meng
  • Kalyanam Shivkumar
  • Olujimi Ajijola
Arrhythmia (G Upadhyay, Section Editor)
  • 88 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Arrhythmia

Abstract

Autonomic nervous system (ANS) has a crucial role of regulating cardiac function in the physiological state and contributes to the pathogenesis of arrhythmias in the diseased state. The cardiac neuraxis consists of multiple feedback loops consisting of efferent and afferent limbs, mediating neurotransmission to and from the heart. Efferent parasympathetic neurotransmission is mediated by the vagus nerve, while paravertebral sympathetic ganglia relay efferent sympathetic neurotransmission to the heart. The association between autonomic activity and ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) has been studied extensively in both experimental models and humans. Efferent parasympathetic activity is felt to be antiarrhythmic, while the activation of efferent sympathetic signals is proarrhythmic. The cardiac neuraxis undergoes remodeling and becomes dysfunctional in the setting of myocardial infarction (MI), chronic cardiomyopathy (CMY), and structural heat disease. Altered ANS function has been shown to initiate and/or maintain VAs via various mechanisms. Interventions targeting the ANS have been used clinically to treat VAs, particularly in patients with hereditary heart rhythm disorders and structurally abnormal hearts. Clinical applications of cardiac neuraxial modulation at the level of spinal cord, stellate ganglion, and peripheral sympathetic and vagus nerve are being developed. In this review, the anatomy of cardiac autonomic innervation, the association between autonomic activity and ventricular arrhythmogenesis, and clinical applications of neuraxial modulation in the treatment of VAs are discussed.

Keywords

Autonomic nervous system Arrhythmias Myocardial infarction Chronic cardiomyopathy Ventricular arrhythmias Cardiac neuraxis 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lingjin Meng
    • 1
  • Kalyanam Shivkumar
    • 1
  • Olujimi Ajijola
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.UCLA Cardiac Arrhythmia Center and Neurocardiology Research Center of ExcellenceLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.UCLA Cardiac Arrhythmic Center, UCLA Health System, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLALos AngelesUSA

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