Current Urology Reports

, 20:5 | Cite as

Imaging of Unusual Renal Tumors

  • R. Patricia Castillo
  • Juan Francisco SantoscoyEmail author
  • Leonardo Pisani
  • Beatrice L. Madrazo
  • V. Javier Casillas
Kidney Diseases (G Ciancio, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Kidney Diseases


Purpose of Review

Renal masses are a wide entity and a common finding in clinical practice. Detection of these masses has increased in the last years, yet mortality rates have slightly decreased.

Recent Findings

According to the World Health Organization classification, there are 8 types, 51 subtypes, and a lot more subsequent subclassifications of renal tumors. Histopathological analysis should always be assessed for final diagnosis of theses tumors. However, imaging can be an important diagnostic guidance. The most common diagnoses of renal tumor are clear cell carcinoma, papillary renal cell carcinoma, angiomyolipoma, and transitional cell carcinoma. Nonetheless, a considerable variety of particular tumors can arise from the kidney, challenging the expertise of radiologists and urologists on this subject.


The awareness of these unusual entities is vital for professionals working at a complex medical facility with greater volume of patients. We hereby present uncommon renal tumors and its pathological and radiological features.


Renal neoplasm Renal cell tumor Mesenchymal renal tumor Mixed epithelial and stromal tumors Imaging features 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

R. Patricia Castillo, Juan F. Santoscoy, Leonardo Pisani, Beatrice L. Madrazo, and V. Javier Casillas each declare no potential conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    Campbell S, Uzzo RG, Allaf ME, Bass EB, Cadeddu JA, Chang A, et al. Renal mass and localized renal cancer: AUA guideline. J Urol. 2017;198(3):520–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    O’Connor SD, Pickhardt PJ, Kim DH, Oliva MR, Silverman SG. Incidental finding of renal masses at unenhanced CT: prevalence and analysis of features for guiding management. Am J Roentgenol. 2011;197(1):139–45.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Moch H, Cubilla AL, Humphrey PA, Reuter VE, Ulbright TM. The 2016 WHO classification of tumours of the urinary system and male genital organs—part a: renal, penile, and testicular Tumours. Eur Urol. 2016;70(1):93–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kobayashi N, Matsuzaki O, Shirai S, Aoki I, Yao M, Nagashima Y. Collecting duct carcinoma of the kidney: an immunohistochemical evaluation of the use of antibodies for differential diagnosis. Hum Pathol. 2008;39(9):1350–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wu J, Zhu Q, Zhu W, Chen W, Wang S. Comparative study of CT appearances in mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma and collecting duct carcinoma of the kidney. Br J Radiol. 2015;88(1056):20140434.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gupta R, Billis A, Shah RB, Moch H, Osunkoya AO, Jochum W, et al. Carcinoma of the collecting ducts of bellini and renal medullary carcinoma: clinicopathologic analysis of 52 cases of rare aggressive subtypes of renal cell carcinoma with a focus on their interrelationship. Am J Surg Pathol. 2012;36(9):1265–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tokuda N, Naito S, Matsuzaki O, Nagashima Y, Ozono S, Igarashi T. Japanese Society of Renal Cancer. Collecting duct (Bellini duct) renal cell carcinoma: a nationwide survey in Japan. J Urol. 2006;176(1):40–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Prasad SR, Humphrey PA, Menias CO, Middleton WD, Siegel MJ, Bae KT, et al. Neoplasms of the renal medulla: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 2005;25:369–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Prasad SR, Humphrey PA, Catena JR, Narra VR, Srigley JR, Cortez AD, et al. Common and uncommon histologic subtypes of renal cell carcinoma: imaging spectrum with pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 2006;26(6):1795–806.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Beckermann KE, Sharma D, Chaturvedi S, Msaouel P, Abboud MR, Allory Y, et al. Renal medullary carcinoma: establishing standards in practice. J Oncol Pract. 2017;13(7):414–21.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sirohi D, Smith SC, Ohe C, Colombo P, Divatia M, Dragoescu E, et al. Renal cell carcinoma, unclassified with medullary phenotype: poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas overlapping with renal medullary carcinoma. Hum Pathol. 2017;67:134–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sandberg JK, Mullen EA, Cajaiba MM, Smith EA, Servaes S, Perlman EJ, et al. Imaging of renal medullary carcinoma in children and young adults: a report from the Children’s Oncology Group. Pediatr Radiol. 2017;47(12):1615–21.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Blitman NM, Berkenblit RG, Rozenblit AM, Levin TL. Renal Medullary Carcinoma: CT and MRI Features. Am J Roentgenol 2005;185(1):268–72.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    •• Chung EM, Lattin GE, Fagen KE, Kim AM, Pavio MA, Fehringer AJ, et al. Renal tumors of childhood: radiologic-pathologic correlation part 2. The 2nd Decade: From the Radiologic Pathology Archives. RadioGraphics. 2017;37(5):1538–58. This article presents the radiological and pathological correlation of different renal masses. Furthermore, describes distinguishing clinical and imaging features in order to make appropiate differential diagnoses. PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Li T, Chen J, Jiang Y, Ning X, Peng S, Wang J, et al. Multilocular cystic renal cell neoplasm of low malignant potential: a series of 76 cases. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2016;14(6):e553–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tretiakova M, Mehta V, Kocherginsky M, Minor A, Shen SS, Sirintrapun SJ, et al. Predominantly cystic clear cell renal cell carcinoma and multilocular cystic renal neoplasm of low malignant potential form a low-grade spectrum. Virchows Arch. 2018;473(1):85–93.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bhatt JR, Jewett MAS, Richard PO, Kawaguchi S, Timilshina N, Evans A, et al. Multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma: pathological T staging makes no difference to favorable outcomes and should be reclassified. J Urol. 2016;196(5):1350–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Williamson SR, Cheng L. Clear cell renal cell tumors: not all that is “clear” is cancer. Urol Oncol. 2016;34(7):292.e17–22.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gürel S, Narra V, Elsayes KM, Siegel CL, Chen ZE, Brown JJ. Subtypes of renal cell carcinoma: MRI and pathological features. Diagn Interv Radiol. 2013;19(4):304–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ghosh P, Kaushik S. Multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma: a rare, unique entity and diagnostic challenge. Arch Iran Med. 2014;17(2):129–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Adsay NV, Eble JN, Srigley JR, Jones EC, Grignon DJ. Mixed epithelial and stromal tumor of the kidney. Am J Surg Pathol. 2000;24(7):958–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhao M, He X, Teng X. Mucinous tubular and spindle cell renal cell carcinoma: a review of clinicopathologic aspects. Diagn Pathol. 2015;10(1):168.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kenney PA, Vikram R, Prasad SR, Tamboli P, Matin SF, Wood CG, et al. Mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma (MTSCC) of the kidney: a detailed study of radiological, pathological and clinical outcomes. BJU Int. 2015;116(1):85–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cornelis F, Ambrosetti D, Rocher L, Derchi LE, Renard B, Puech P, et al. CT and MR imaging features of mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma of the kidneys. A multi-institutional review. Eur Radiol. 2017;27(3):1087–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sahni VA, Hirsch MS, Sadow CA, Silverman SG. Mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma of the kidney: imaging features. Cancer Imaging. 2012;12(1):66–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    •• Kay FU, Pedrosa I. Imaging of solid renal masses. Radiol Clin N Am. 2017;55(2):243–58. This article emphazise the actual role of imaging and its different modalities in order to characterise benign and malignant renal lesions. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wobker SE, Williamson SR. Modern pathologic diagnosis of renal oncocytoma. J Kidney Cancer VHL. 2017;4(4):1–12.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    • Lopes Vendrami C, Parada Villavicencio C, DeJulio TJ, Chatterjee A, Casalino DD, Horowitz JM, et al. Differentiation of solid renal tumors with multiparametric MR imaging. RadioGraphics. 2017;37(7):2026–42. This article describe the imaging and pathologic characteristics of the most common renal tumors. As well as the MRI imaging diagnostic approach of these renal masses. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lou L, Teng J, Lin X, Zhang H. Ultrasonographic features of renal oncocytoma with histopathologic correlation. J Clin Ultrasound. 2014;42(3):129–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Young JR, Coy H, Kim HJ, Douek M, Lo P, Pantuck AJ, et al. Performance of relative enhancement on multiphasic MRI for the differentiation of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) from papillary and chromophobe RCC subtypes and oncocytoma. Am J Roentgenol. 2017;208(4):812–9.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kao SL, Hsu YH, Kuo HC. Renal oncocytoma with specific imaging findings. Tzu Chi Med J. 2010;22(1):36–8.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wu J, Zhu Q, Zhu W, Zhang H. Metanephric adenoma with diffuse calcifications: a case report. Oncol Lett. 2015;10(3):1816–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zhu Q, Zhu W, Wu J, Chen W, Wang S. The clinical and CT imaging features of metanephric adenoma. Acta Radiol. 2014;55(2):231–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mantoan Padilha M, Billis A, Allende D, Zhou M, Magi-Galluzzi C. Metanephric adenoma and solid variant of papillary renal cell carcinoma: common and distinctive features. Histopathology. 2013;62(6):941–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Küpeli S, Baydar DE, Çanakl F, Yalçn B, Kösemehmetoğlu K, Tekgül S, et al. Metanephric adenoma in a 6-year-old child with hemihypertrophy. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2009;31(6):453–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Eble JN. Angiomyolipoma of kidney. Semin Diagn Pathol. 1998;15(1):21–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Nelson CP, Sanda MG. Contemporary diagnosis and management of renal angiomyolipoma. J Urol. 2002;168(4 Pt 1):1315–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tsui WM, Colombari R, Portmann BC, Bonetti F, Thung SN, Ferrell LD, et al. Hepatic angiomyolipoma: a clinicopathologic study of 30 cases and delineation of unusual morphologic variants. Am J Surg Pathol. 1999;23(1):34–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lane BR, Aydin H, Danforth TL, Zhou M, Remer EM, Novick AC, et al. Clinical correlates of renal angiomyolipoma subtypes in 209 patients: classic, fat poor, tuberous sclerosis associated and epithelioid. J Urol. 2008;180(3):836–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zhu J, Li H, Ding L, Cheng H, Zhu J, Li H, et al. Imaging appearance of renal epithelioid angiomyolipoma: a case report and literature review. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018;97(1):1–4.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Raman SP, Hruban RH, Fishman EK. Beyond renal cell carcinoma: rare and unusual renal masses. Abdom Imaging. 2012;37(5):873–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Liu Y, Qu F, Cheng R, Ye Z. CT-imaging features of renal epithelioid angiomyolipoma. World J Surg Oncol. 2015;13(1):9–14.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Park JH, Lee C, Suh JH, Kim G, Song B, Moon KC. Renal epithelioid angiomyolipoma: histopathologic review, immunohistochemical evaluation and prognostic significance. Pathol Int. 2016;66(10):571–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Tsukada J, Jinzaki M, Yao M, Nagashima Y, Mikami S, Yashiro H, et al. Epithelioid angiomyolipoma of the kidney: radiological imaging. Int J Urol. 2013;20(11):1105–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ryan MJ, Francis IR, Cohan RH, Davenport MS, Weizer A, Hafez K, et al. Imaging appearance of renal epithelioid angiomyolipomas. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2013;37(6):957–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Qiu T, Ling W, Lu Q, Lu C, Luo Y. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in diagnosis of epithelioid renal angiomyolipoma with renal vein and inferior vena cava extension. J Med Ultrason. 2016;43(3):427–30.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Zhong Y, Shen Y, Pan J, Wang Y, An Y, Guo A, et al. Renal epithelioid angiomyolipoma: MRI findings. Radiol Med. 2017;122(11):814–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Chuang CK, Lin HCA, Tasi HY, Lee KH, Kao Y, Chuang FL, et al. Clinical presentations and molecular studies of invasive renal epithelioid angiomyolipoma. Int Urol Nephrol. 2017;49(9):1527–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Zeng X, Huang H, Li J, Peng J, Zhang J. The clinical and radiological characteristics of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor occurring at unusual sites. Biomed Res Int. 2018;2018:1–8.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Babu P, Kalpana Kumari MK, Nagaraj HK, Mysorekar VV. Inflammatory pseudotumor of kidney masquerading as renal carcinoma. J Cancer Res Ther. 2015;11(3):668.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Patnana M, Sevrukov AB, Elsayes KM, Viswanathan C, Lubner M, Menias CO. Inflammatory pseudotumor: the great mimicker. Am J Roentgenol. 2012;198(3):12–5.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lee NG, Alexander MP, Xu H, Wang DS. Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor: a case report and comprehensive review of literature. World J Oncol. 2011;2(2):85–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Dogan MS, Doganay S, Koc G, Gorkem SB, Unal E, Ozturk F, et al. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the kidney and bilateral lung nodules in a child mimicking Wilms tumor with lung metastases. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2015;37(6):390–3.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Zhu L, Li J, Liu C, Ding W, Lin F, Guo C, et al. Pulmonary inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor versus IgG4-related inflammatory pseudotumor: differential diagnosis based on a case series. J Thorac Dis. 2017;9(3):598–609.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kramer S, Meadows AT, Jarrett P, Evans AE. Incidence of childhood cancer: experience of a decade in a population-based registry. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1983;70(1):49–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hollowood K, Fletcher CD. Rhabdomyosarcoma in adults. Semin Diagn Pathol. 1994;11(1):47–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Furlong MA, Mentzel T, Fanburg-Smith JC. Pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma in adults: a clinicopathologic study of 38 cases with emphasis on morphologic variants and recent skeletal muscle-specific markers. Mod Pathol. 2001;14(6):595–603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Grignon DJ, McIsaac GP, Armstrong RF, Wyatt JK. Primary rhabdomyosarcoma of the kidney: a light microscopic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic study. Cancer. 1988;62(9):2027–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Alaa S, Haneen A-M. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the kidney. J Pediatr Surg Case Rep. 2018;32:62–7.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Seifert RP, McNab P, Sexton WJ, Sawczyn KK, Smith P, Coppola D, et al. Rhabdomyomatous differentiation in Wilms tumor pulmonary metastases: a case report and literature review. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2012;42(4):409–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hakky TS, Gonzalvo AA, Lockhart JL, Rodriguez AR. Primary Ewing sarcoma of the kidney: a symptomatic presentation and review of the literature. Ther Adv Urol. 2013;5(3):153–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Iwamoto Y. Diagnosis and treatment of Ewing’s sarcoma. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2007;37(2):79–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Pakravan A, Vo T-M, Sandomirsky M, Bastani B. Kidney diseases primary Ewing sarcoma of kidney in an elderly. Iran J Kidney Dis. 2012;6:307–10.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Thyavihally YB, Tongaonkar HB, Gupta S, Kurkure PA, Amare P, Muckaden MA, et al. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney: a single institute series of 16 patients. Urology. 2008;71(2):292–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Angel JR, Alfred A, Sakhuja A, Sells RE, Zechlinski JJ. Ewing’s sarcoma of the kidney. Int J Clin Oncol. 2010;15(3):314–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Cuesta Alcalá JA, Solchaga Martínez A, Caballero Martínez MC, Gómez Dorronsoro M, Pascual Piédrola I, Ripa Saldías L, et al. Primary neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of the kidney: 26 cases. Current status of its diagnosis and treatment. Arch Esp Urol. 2001;54(10):1081–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Michal M, Syrucek M. Benign mixed epithelial and stromal tumor of the kidney. Pathol Res Pract. 1998;194(6):445–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Podduturi V, Guileyardo JM. Mixed epithelial and stromal tumors of the kidney discovered incidentally at autopsy. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2015;28(2):224–6.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Chu LC, Hruban RH, Horton KM, Fishman EK. Mixed epithelial and stromal tumor of the kidney: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 2010;30(6):1541–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gallo GE, Penchansky L. Cystic nephroma. Cancer. 1977;39(3):1322–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Granja MF, O’Brien AT, Trujillo S, Mancera J, Aguirre DA. Multilocular cystic nephroma: a systematic literature review of the radiologic and clinical findings. Am J Roentgenol. 2015;205(6):1188–93.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Madewell JE, Goldman SM, Davis CJ, Hartman DS, Feigin DS, Lichtenstein JE. Multilocular cystic nephroma: a radiographic-pathologic correlation of 58 patients. Radiology. 1983;146(2):309–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Charu A, Arvind A, Palak A, Minakshi B. Multilocular cystic nephroma: a rare presentation in a young female. J Clin Exp Pathol. 2017;07(04):1–2.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kalapurakal JA, Dome JS, Perlman EJ, Malogolowkin M, Haase GM, Grundy P, et al. Management of Wilms’ tumour: current practice and future goals. Lancet Oncol. 2004;5(1):37–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Huff V. Wilms’ tumours: about tumour suppressor genes, an oncogene and a chameleon gene. Nat Rev Cancer. 2011;11(2):111–21.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Scott RH, Stiller CA, Walker L, Rahman N. Syndromes and constitutional chromosomal abnormalities associated with Wilms tumour. J Med Genet. 2006;43(9):705–15.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kalish JM, Doros L, Helman LJ, Hennekam RC, Kuiper RP, Maas SM, et al. Surveillance recommendations for children with overgrowth syndromes and predisposition to Wilms tumors and hepatoblastoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2017;23(13):e115–22.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Zuppan CW, Beckwith JB, Luckey DW. Anaplasia in unilateral Wilms’ tumor: a report from the National Wilms’ Tumor Study pathology center. Hum Pathol. 1988;19(10):1199–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Lowe LH, Isuani BH, Heller RM, Stein SM, Johnson JE, Navarro OM, et al. Pediatric renal masses: Wilms tumor and beyond. Radiographics. 2000;20(6):1585–603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    D’Angio GJ, Breslow N, Beckwith JB, Evans A, Baum H, de Lorimier A, et al. Treatment of Wilms’ tumor. Results of the third National Wilms’ Tumor Study. Cancer. 1989;64(2):349–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Huszno J, Starzyczny-Słota D, Jaworska M, Nowara E. Adult Wilms’ tumor—diagnosis and current therapy. Cent European J Urol. 2013;66(1):39–44.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Metzger ML, Dome JS. Current therapy for Wilms’ tumor. Oncologist. 2005;10(10):815–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gow KW, Barnhart DC, Hamilton TE, Kandel JJ, Chen MKS, Ferrer FA, et al. Primary nephrectomy and intraoperative tumor spill: report from the Children’s oncology group (COG) renal tumors committee. J Pediatr Surg. 2013;48(1):34–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Idrissi-Serhrouchni K, El-Fatemi H, El Madi A, Benhayoun K, Chbani L, Harmouch T, et al. Primary renal teratoma: a rare entity. Diagn Pathol. 2013;8:107.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Nirmal TJ, Krishnamoorthy S, Korula A. Primary intrarenal teratoma in an adult: a case report and review of literature. Indian J Urol. 2009;25(3):404–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Yoo J, Park S, Jung Lee H, Jin Kang S, Kee KB. Primary carcinoid tumor arising in a mature teratoma of the kidney: a case report and review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2002;126(8):979–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Otani M, Tsujimoto S, Miura M, Nagashima Y. Intrarenal mature cystic teratoma associated with renal dysplasia: case report and literature review. Pathol Int. 2001;51(7):560–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Urban BA, Fishman EK. Renal lymphoma: CT patterns with emphasis on helical CT. Radiographics. 2000;20(1):197–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sheth S, Ali S, Fishman E. Imaging of renal lymphoma: patterns of disease with pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 2006;26(4):1151–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Purysko AS, Westphalen AC, Remer EM, Coppa CP, Leão Filho HM, Herts BR. Imaging manifestations of hematologic diseases with renal and perinephric involvement. Radiographics. 2016;36(4):1038–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Chen X, Hu D, Fang L, Chen Y, Che X, Tao J, et al. Primary renal lymphoma: a case report and literature review. Oncol Lett. 2016;12(5):4001–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Donow C, Pipeleers-Marichal M, Schröder S, Stamm B, Heitz PU, Klöppel G. Surgical pathology of gastrinoma. Site, size, multicentricity, association with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, and malignancy. Cancer. 1991;68(6):1329–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Katkoori D, Samavedi S, Jorda M, Block NL, Manoharan M. A rare case of renal gastrinoma. ScientificWorldJournal. 2009;9:501–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Howard TJ, Sawicki M, Lewin KJ, Steel B, Bhagavan BS, Cummings OW, et al. Pancreatic polypeptide immunoreactivity in sporadic gastrinoma: relationship to intraabdominal location. Pancreas. 1995;11(4):350–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Dyer R, DiSantis DJ, McClennan BL. Simplified imaging approach for evaluation of the solid renal mass in adults. Radiology. 2008;247(2):331–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Herrera-Caceres JO, Finelli A, Jewett MAS. Renal tumor biopsy: indicators, technique, safety, accuracy results, and impact on treatment decision management. World J Urol. 2018;0123456789.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Reinhard R, Van der Zon-Conijn M, Smithuis R. Kidney Solid Masses. In: Radiology Assistant. June, 2016. Accessed 12 May 2019.
  98. 98.
    Bagheri MH, Ahlman MA, Lindenberg L, Turkbey B, Lin J, Cahid Civelek A, et al. Advances in medical imaging for the diagnosis and management of common genitourinary cancers. Urol Oncol. 2017;35(7):473–91.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Volpe A, Finelli A, Gill IS, Jewett MAS, Martignoni G, Polascik TJ, et al. Rationale for percutaneous biopsy and histologic characterisation of renal tumours. Eur Urol. 2012;62(3):491–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Baughman RP, Teirstein AS, Judson MA, Rossman MD, Yeager H, Bresnitz EA, et al. Clinical characteristics of patients in a case control study of sarcoidosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;164(10):1885–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Roudenko A, Murillo P, Akers S, Koo CW. Renal sarcoid: pseudotumoral radiologic manifestations and pathologic correlation. Radiol Case Rep. 2012;7(2):599.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Koyama T, Ueda H, Togashi K, Umeoka S, Kataoka M, Nagai S. Radiologic manifestations of sarcoidosis in various organs. Radiographics. 2004;24(1):87–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Patricia Castillo
    • 1
  • Juan Francisco Santoscoy
    • 1
    Email author
  • Leonardo Pisani
    • 1
  • Beatrice L. Madrazo
    • 1
  • V. Javier Casillas
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyUniversity of Miami/Miller School of MedicineMiamiUSA

Personalised recommendations