Enhanced Endoscopy in Bladder Cancer
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Purpose of Review
Endoscopy coupled with targeted resections represents a cornerstone in the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of patients with bladder cancer. Direct visualization can be challenging and imprecise due to patient-, tumor-, and surgeon-specific factors. We will review contemporary endoscopic technologies and techniques used to improve our ability to safely identify and resect malignant lesions in patients with bladder cancer.
Enhanced endoscopic imaging technology may improve detection rates for bladder cancer throughout the upper and lower urinary tract, which may lead to improvements in recurrence and progression rates for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). New techniques including narrow-band imaging (NBI), photodynamic diagnosis (PDD), Storz Professional Image Enhancement System (SPIES), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and others have shown benefit and may further improve our ability to detect and stage bladder tumors.
Enhanced endoscopy technologies have already demonstrated value in improving the sensitivity of bladder cancer detection and early results suggest they may improve short- and long-term oncologic outcomes.
KeywordsBladder cancer Endoscopy Cystoscopy Transurethral resection Diagnosis Surveillance
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Shane Pearce declares no potential conflicts of interest.
Siamak Daneshmand is a section editor for Current Urology Reports.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major Importance
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