Female Cosmetic Genital Reconstruction: a Review of Current Trends, Treatments, and Techniques

  • Christopher Gonzales-Alabastro
  • Karyn S. Eilber
  • Jennifer T. Anger
  • Jennifer R. BermanEmail author
Male and Female Surgical Interventions (A Burnett and C Carson, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Male and Female Surgical Interventions


Purpose of Review

To examine the peer-reviewed publications on the topic of female cosmetic genital surgery (FCGS) and discuss recent trends, the factors motivating patients to request these procedures, and the controversy surrounding them.

Recent Findings

In studies with the primary goal being esthetic improvement (e.g., labiaplasty), post-operative satisfaction rates are generally high. When procedure outcomes are focused more on functional aspects, such as enhancement of sexual function and response, statistically significant improvements are also reported after treatment. Complication rates vary across treatment sites and operating physicians.


While FCGS procedures continue to rise, great variation still exists across patient-centered outcomes, treatment modalities offered, and quality of published studies examining outcomes. Small sample sizes and lack of standardization across study centers make scientifically validating existing data challenging. Consensus across disciplines pertaining to standardization of procedures and outcomes is necessary to optimize patient satisfaction, care, and safety.


Minimally invasive treatments for vaginal dryness Female genital cosmetic surgery Labiaplasty Minimally invasive treatments for vaginal laxity Non-surgical vaginal tightening Vaginal rejuvenation Radiofrequency treatments for vaginal laxity 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher Gonzales-Alabastro
    • 1
  • Karyn S. Eilber
    • 2
  • Jennifer T. Anger
    • 2
  • Jennifer R. Berman
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.University of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Cedars-Sinai Medical CenterBeverly HillsUSA
  3. 3.Berman Women’s Wellness CenterLos AngelesUSA

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