Immune-Related Adverse Events in Cancer Patients Treated With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors
Purpose of Review
With the advent of cancer immunotherapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors, patients with malignancies can now achieve durable remissions for conditions previously described as terminal. However, immune-related adverse events (irAEs) associated with cancer immunotherapy have become an anticipated consequence of enhanced T cell activation. Through an extensive literature review, we assess the most recent clinical and basic research data concerning immune checkpoint blockade and describe the spectrum of associated irAEs as well as their management.
Anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, and anti-CTLA-4 antibodies are widely used in the management of an array of tumors with incredible clinical remissions. However, irAEs cause significant morbidity and mortality and in some cases, result in withdrawal of cancer therapy and initiation of immunosuppression.
While this is an exciting time in oncology, irAEs are a barrier to adequate care and therefore deserve close attention and improved capacity to predict and prevent toxicity. Rheumatologists should be familiar with these topics in the eventuality of patient evaluation and management.
KeywordsCancer Checkpoint inhibitors Adverse events Autoimmune irAEs
This work was supported by a grant from the NIH (R01 AI25640).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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