Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Interpersonal Synchrony in Autism

Abstract

Purpose of Review

We review evidence for the presence, quality, and correlates of interpersonal synchrony in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) across four domains: motor, conversational, physiological, and neural. We also propose cognitive and neural mechanisms for the disruption of interpersonal synchrony and investigate synchrony as a mechanism of intervention in ASD.

Recent Findings

Across domains, synchrony is present but reduced or atypical in individuals with ASD during interactions with individuals with typical development (TD). Atypical synchrony may reflect the contribution of both intrapersonal mechanisms, such as atypical motor timing, and interpersonal mechanisms, such as atypical interindividual coupling. Research suggests evidence for synchrony interventions leading to improvements in some aspects of social behavior.

Summary

Understanding synchrony in ASD has the potential to lead to biomarkers and interventions to support social functioning. However, further research should clarify mechanisms of atypical synchrony in ASD including taking features of the dyad into account.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance

  1. 1.

    Richardson MJ, Marsh KL, Isenhower RW, Goodman JRL, Schmidt RC. Rocking together: dynamics of intentional and unintentional interpersonal coordination. Hum Mov Sci. 2007;26:867–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2007.07.002.

  2. 2.

    Louwerse MM, Dale R, Bard EG, Jeuniaux P. Behavior matching in multimodal communication is synchronized. Cogn Sci. 2012;36:1404–26. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1551-6709.2012.01269.x.

  3. 3.

    Feldman R, Magori-Cohen R, Galili G, Singer M, Louzoun Y. Mother and infant coordinate heart rhythms through episodes of interaction synchrony. Infant Behav Dev. 2011;34:569–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2011.06.008.

  4. 4.

    Vicaria IM, Dickens L. Meta-analyses of the intra- and interpersonal outcomes of interpersonal coordination. J Nonverbal Behav. 2016;40:335–61. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10919-016-0238-8.

  5. 5.

    Rennung M, Göritz AS. Prosocial consequences of interpersonal synchrony: a meta-analysis. Z Psychol. 2016;224:168–89. https://doi.org/10.1027/2151-2604/a000252.

  6. 6.

    Mogan R, Fischer R, Bulbulia JA. To be in synchrony or not? A meta-analysis of synchrony’s effects on behavior, perception, cognition and affect. J Exp Soc Psychol. 2017;72:13–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2017.03.009.

  7. 7.

    Cirelli LK. How interpersonal synchrony facilitates early prosocial behavior. Curr Opin Psychol. 2018;20:35–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2017.08.009.

  8. 8.

    • Wadge H, Brewer R, Bird G, Toni I, Stolk A. Communicative misalignment in autism spectrum disorder. Cortex. 2019;115:15–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.01.003. This study employs a novel game to examine how communicative alignment occurs in ASD outside of the demands of face-to-face interaction. There is evidence for reduced alignment in ASD-ASD and ASD-TD dyads relative to TD-TD dyads. This reduced alignment correlates with poorer game performance for all groups.

  9. 9.

    Feldman R. Parent-infant synchrony: a biobehavioral model of mutual influences in the formation of affiliative bonds. Monogr Soc Res Child Dev. 2012;77:42–51. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5834.2011.00660.x.

  10. 10.

    Dikker S, Wan L, Davidesco I, Kaggen L, Oostrik M, McClintock J, et al. Brain-to-brain synchrony tracks real-world dynamic group interactions in the classroom. Curr Biol. 2017;27:1375–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2017.04.002.

  11. 11.

    Palumbo RV, Marraccini ME, Weyandt LL, Wilder-Smith O, McGee HA, Liu S, et al. Interpersonal autonomic physiology: a systematic review of the literature. Personal Soc Psychol Rev. 2017;21:99–141. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088868316628405.

  12. 12.

    • Bloch C, Vogeley K, Georgescu AL, Falter-Wagner CM. INTRApersonal synchrony as constituent of INTERpersonal synchrony and its relevance for autism spectrum disorder. Front Robot AI. 2019;6:73. https://doi.org/10.3389/frobt.2019.00073. This review summarizes current papers on interpersonal synchrony in ASD and proposes that atypical intrapersonal timing may give rise to atypical interpersonal timing.

  13. 13.

    Peper C(L)E, van der Wal SJ, Begeer S. Autism in action: reduced bodily connectedness during social interactions? Front Psychol. 2016;7:1862. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01862.

  14. 14.

    Tordjman S, Davlantis KS, Georgieff N, Geoffray M-M, Speranza M, Anderson GM, et al. Autism as a disorder of biological and behavioral rhythms: toward new therapeutic perspectives. Front Pediatr. 2015;3:1. https://doi.org/10.3389/fped.2015.00001.

  15. 15.

    • Shamay-Tsoory SG, Saporta N, Marton-Alper IZ, Gvirts HZ. Herding brains: a core neural mechanism for social alignment. Trends Cogn Sci. 2019;23:174–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2019.01.002. This paper proposes a common neural mechanism for alignment across the motor, cognitive, and emotional domains, with some evidence for how this model may apply in ASD.

  16. 16.

    Brezis R-S, Noy L, Alony T, Gotlieb R, Cohen R, Golland Y, et al. Patterns of joint improvisation in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Front Psychol. 2017;8:1790. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01790.

  17. 17.

    Delaherche E, Chetouani M, Bigouret F, Xavier J, Plaza M, Cohen D. Assessment of the communicative and coordination skills of children with autism spectrum disorders and typically developing children using social signal processing. Res Autism Spectr Disord. 2013;7:741–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2013.02.003.

  18. 18.

    Fitzpatrick P, Frazier JA, Cochran DM, Mitchell T, Coleman C, Schmidt RC. Impairments of social motor synchrony evident in autism spectrum disorder. Front Psychol. 2016;7:1323. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01323.

  19. 19.

    • Fitzpatrick P, Romero V, Amaral JL, Duncan A, Barnard H, Richardson MJ, et al. Evaluating the importance of social motor synchronization and motor skill for understanding autism. Autism Res. 2017;10:1687–99. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.1808. This study examines a variety of motor synchrony tasks in a large sample of children, finding evidence for less stable motor synchrony in ASD.

  20. 20.

    Kaur M, Srinivasan SM, Bhat AN. Comparing motor performance, praxis, coordination, and interpersonal synchrony between children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Res Dev Disabil. 2018;72:79–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2017.10.025.

  21. 21.

    Kawasaki M, Kitajo K, Fukao K, Murai T, Yamaguchi Y, Funabiki Y. Frontal theta activation during motor synchronization in autism. Sci Rep. 2017;7:15034. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-14508-4.

  22. 22.

    Koehne S, Hatri A, Cacioppo JT, Dziobek I. Perceived interpersonal synchrony increases empathy: insights from autism spectrum disorder. Cognition. 2016;146:8–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2015.09.007.

  23. 23.

    Marsh KL, Isenhower RW, Richardson MJ, Helt M, Verbalis AD, Schmidt RC, et al. Autism and social disconnection in interpersonal rocking. Front Integr Neurosci. 2013;7:4. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnint.2013.00004.

  24. 24.

    • Noel J-P, De Niear MA, Lazzara NS, Wallace MT. Uncoupling between multisensory temporal function and nonverbal turn-taking in autism spectrum disorder. IEEE Trans Cogn Dev Syst. 2018;10:973–82. https://doi.org/10.1109/TCDS.2017.2778141. This study highlights the feasibility of exploring motor synchrony in ASD via video motion analysis. Children with ASD synchronize their head and hand movements less with a clinician than children with TD, with potential relationships to children’s perception of audiovisual synchrony.

  25. 25.

    Romero V, Fitzpatrick P, Schmidt RC, Richardson MJ. Using cross-recurrence quantification analysis to understand social motor coordination in children with autism spectrum disorder. In: Webber Jr CL, Ioana C, Marwan N, editors. Recurrence plots their quantif expand horizons. Berlin: Springer; 2016.

  26. 26.

    Romero V, Fitzpatrick P, Roulier S, Duncan A, Richardson MJ, Schmidt RC. Evidence of embodied social competence during conversation in high functioning children with autism spectrum disorder. PLoS One. 2018;13:e0193906. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0193906.

  27. 27.

    Stoit AMB, van Schie HT, Riem M, Meulenbroek RGJ, Newman-Norlund RD, Slaats-Willemse DIE, et al. Internal model deficits impair joint action in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Res Autism Spectr Disord. 2011;5:1526–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2011.02.016.

  28. 28.

    Zapata-Fonseca L, Dotov D, Fossion R, Froese T, Schilbach L, Vogeley K, et al. Multi-scale coordination of distinctive movement patterns during embodied interaction between adults with high-functioning autism and neurotypicals. Front Psychol. 2019;9:2760. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02760.

  29. 29.

    Allen ML, Haywood S, Rajendran G, Branigan H. Evidence for syntactic alignment in children with autism. Dev Sci. 2011;14:540–8. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2010.01001.x.

  30. 30.

    Branigan HP, Tosi A, Gillespie-Smith K. Spontaneous lexical alignment in children with an autistic spectrum disorder and their typically developing peers. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn. 2016;42:1821–31. https://doi.org/10.1037/xlm0000272.

  31. 31.

    Hobson RP, Hobson JA, García-Pérez R, Du Bois J. Dialogic linkage and resonance in autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 2012;42:2718–28. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-012-1528-6.

  32. 32.

    Hopkins Z, Yuill N, Keller B. Children with autism align syntax in natural conversation. Appl Psycholinguist. 2016;37:347–70. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716414000599.

  33. 33.

    Nadig A, Seth S, Sasson M. Global similarities and multifaceted differences in the production of partner-specific referential pacts by adults with autism spectrum disorders. Front Psychol. 2015;6:1888. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01888.

  34. 34.

    Slocombe KE, Alvarez I, Branigan HP, Jellema T, Burnett HG, Fischer A, et al. Linguistic alignment in adults with and without Asperger’s syndrome. J Autism Dev Disord. 2013;43:1423–36. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-012-1698-2.

  35. 35.

    Baker JK, Fenning RM, Howland MA, Baucom BR, Moffitt J, Erath SA. Brief report: a pilot study of parent–child biobehavioral synchrony in autism spectrum disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2015;45:4140–6. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-015-2528-0.

  36. 36.

    Dunsmore JC, Ashley RA, Zhou Y, Swain DM, Factor RS, Broomell AP, et al. Marching to the beat of your own drum?: a proof-of-concept study assessing physiological linkage in autism spectrum disorder. Biol Psychol. 2019;144:37–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2019.03.001.

  37. 37.

    Saxbe DE, Golan O, Ostfeld-Etzion S, Hirschler-Guttenberg Y, Zagoory-Sharon O, Feldman R. HPA axis linkage in parent–child dyads: effects of parent sex, autism spectrum diagnosis, and dyadic relationship behavior. Dev Psychobiol. 2017;59:776–86. https://doi.org/10.1002/dev.21537.

  38. 38.

    Hasegawa C, Ikeda T, Yoshimura Y, Hiraishi H, Takahashi T, Furutani N, et al. Mu rhythm suppression reflects mother-child face-to-face interactions: a pilot study with simultaneous MEG recording. Sci Rep. 2016;6:34977. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep34977.

  39. 39.

    Tanabe HC, Kosaka H, Saito DN, Koike T, Hayashi MJ, Izuma K, et al. Hard to “tune in”: neural mechanisms of live face-to-face interaction with high-functioning autistic spectrum disorder. Front Hum Neurosci. 2012;6:268. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2012.00268.

  40. 40.

    Ward JA, Richardson D, Orgs G, Hunter K, Hamilton A. Sensing interpersonal synchrony between actors and autistic children in theatre using wrist-worn accelerometers. Proc 2018 ACM Int Symp Wearable Comput 2018.

  41. 41.

    Lampi A, Fitzpatrick P, Romero V, Amaral J, Schmidt RC. Understanding the influence of social and motor context on the co-occurring frequency of restricted and repetitive behaviors in autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 2018:1–18. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-018-3698-3.

  42. 42.

    Fitzpatrick P, Diorio R, Richardson MJ, Schmidt RC. Dynamical methods for evaluating the time-dependent unfolding of social coordination in children with autism. Front Integr Neurosci. 2013;7:21. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnint.2013.00021.

  43. 43.

    Fitzpatrick P, Romero V, Amaral JL, Duncan A, Barnard H, Richardson MJ, et al. Social motor synchronization: insights for understanding social behavior in autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 2017;47:2092–107. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-017-3124-2.

  44. 44.

    Fitzpatrick P, Frazier JA, Cochran D, Mitchell T, Coleman C, Schmidt RC. Relationship between theory of mind, emotion recognition, and social synchrony in adolescents with and without autism. Front Psychol. 2018;9:1337. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01337.

  45. 45.

    Du Bois JW, Hobson RP, Hobson JA. Dialogic resonance and intersubjective engagement in autism. Cogn Linguist. 2014;25:411–41. https://doi.org/10.1515/cog-2014-0025.

  46. 46.

    Bottema-Beutel K. Glimpses into the blind spot: social interaction and autism. J Commun Disord. 2017;68:24–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcomdis.2017.06.008.

  47. 47.

    Davis M, West K, Bilms J, Morelen D, Suveg C. A systematic review of parent–child synchrony: it is more than skin deep. Dev Psychobiol. 2018;60:674–91. https://doi.org/10.1002/dev.21743.

  48. 48.

    Fox NA, Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, Yoo KH, Bowman LC, Cannon EN, Vanderwert RE, et al. Assessing human mirror activity with EEG mu rhythm: a meta-analysis. Psychol Bull. 2016;142:291–313. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000031.

  49. 49.

    Rolison MJ, Naples AJ, McPartland JC. Interactive social neuroscience to study autism spectrum disorder. Yale J Biol Med. 2015;88:17–24.

  50. 50.

    Cook J. From movement kinematics to social cognition: the case of autism. Phil Trans R Soc B. 2016;371:20150372. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2015.0372.

  51. 51.

    • Bolis D, Balsters J, Wenderoth N, Becchio C, Schilbach L. Beyond autism: introducing the dialectical misattunement hypothesis and a bayesian account of intersubjectivity. Psychopathology. 2017;50:355–72. https://doi.org/10.1159/000484353. This article proposes the dialectical misattunement hypothesis, which highlights the role of interpersonal mismatch in determining social outcomes. Under this hypothesis, dyads comprised of individuals with the same diagnosis would be expected to align better than dyads comprised of mismatched diagnoses.

  52. 52.

    Bolis D, Schilbach L. Observing and participating in social interactions: action perception and action control across the autistic spectrum. Dev Cogn Neurosci. 2018;29:168–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2017.01.009.

  53. 53.

    Bhat AN, Landa RJ, Galloway JC. Current perspectives on motor functioning in infants, children, and adults with autism spectrum disorders. Phys Ther. 2011;91:1116–29. https://doi.org/10.2522/ptj.20100294.

  54. 54.

    Gowen E, Hamilton A. Motor abilities in autism: a review using a computational context. J Autism Dev Disord. 2013;43:323–44. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-012-1574-0.

  55. 55.

    Frazier TW, Strauss M, Klingemier EW, Zetzer EE, Hardan AY, Eng C, et al. A meta-analysis of gaze differences to social and nonsocial information between individuals with and without autism. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2017;56:546–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2017.05.005.

  56. 56.

    Chevallier C, Parish-Morris J, McVey A, Rump KM, Sasson NJ, Herrington JD, et al. Measuring social attention and motivation in autism spectrum disorder using eye-tracking: stimulus type matters. Autism Res. 2015;8:620–8. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.1479.

  57. 57.

    Kinsbourne M, Helt M. Entrainment, mimicry, and interpersonal synchrony. In: Fein D, editor. The neuropsychology of autism. New York: Oxford University Press; 2011.

  58. 58.

    Vivanti G, Trembath D, Dissanayake C. Mechanisms of imitation impairment in autism spectrum disorder. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2014;42:1395–405. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-014-9874-9.

  59. 59.

    Chevallier C, Kohls G, Troiani V, Brodkin ES, Schultz RT. The social motivation theory of autism. Trends Cogn Sci. 2012;16:231–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2012.02.007.

  60. 60.

    Clements CC, Zoltowski AR, Yankowitz LD, Yerys BE, Schultz RT, Herrington JD. Evaluation of the social motivation hypothesis of autism: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry. 2018;75:797–808. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.1100.

  61. 61.

    Feldman R, Golan O, Hirschler-Guttenberg Y, Ostfeld-Etzion S, Zagoory-Sharon O. Parent-child interaction and oxytocin production in pre-schoolers with autism spectrum disorder. Br J Psychiatry. 2014;205:107–12. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.113.137513.

  62. 62.

    Parker KJ, Garner JP, Libove RA, Hyde SA, Hornbeak KB, Carson DS, et al. Plasma oxytocin concentrations and OXTR polymorphisms predict social impairments in children with and without autism spectrum disorder. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:12258–63. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1402236111.

  63. 63.

    Festante F, Ferrari PF, Thorpe SG, Buchanan RW, Fox NA. Intranasal oxytocin enhances EEG mu rhythm desynchronization during execution and observation of social action: an exploratory study. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2020;111:104467. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2019.104467.

  64. 64.

    Levy J, Goldstein A, Zagoory-Sharon O, Weisman O, Schneiderman I, Eidelman-Rothman M, et al. Oxytocin selectively modulates brain response to stimuli probing social synchrony. Neuroimage. 2016;124:923–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.09.066.

  65. 65.

    Mu Y, Guo C, Han S. Oxytocin enhances inter-brain synchrony during social coordination in male adults. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2016;11:1882–93. https://doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsw106.

  66. 66.

    Arueti M, Perach-Barzilay N, Tsoory MM, Berger B, Getter N, Shamay-Tsoory SG. When two become one: the role of oxytocin in interpersonal coordination and cooperation. J Cogn Neurosci. 2013;25:1418–27. https://doi.org/10.1162/jocn_a_00400.

  67. 67.

    Spengler FB, Scheele D, Marsh N, Kofferath C, Flach A, Schwarz S, et al. Oxytocin facilitates reciprocity in social communication. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2017;12:1325–33. https://doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsx061.

  68. 68.

    Rizzolatti G, Craighero L. The mirror-neuron system. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2004;27:169–92. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.neuro.27.070203.144230.

  69. 69.

    Oberman LM, Ramachandran VS. The simulating social mind: the role of the mirror neuron system and simulation in the social and communicative deficits of autism spectrum disorders. Psychol Bull. 2007;133:310–27. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.133.2.310.

  70. 70.

    Iacoboni M, Dapretto M. The mirror neuron system and the consequences of its dysfunction. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2006;7:942–51. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn2024.

  71. 71.

    Hamilton AF de C. Reflecting on the mirror neuron system in autism: a systematic review of current theories. Dev Cogn Neurosci. 2013;3:91–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2012.09.008.

  72. 72.

    Hamilton AF de C. Emulation and mimicry for social interaction: a theoretical approach to imitation in autism. Q J Exp Psychol. 2008;61:101–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/17470210701508798.

  73. 73.

    Forbes PAG, Wang Y, Hamilton AF de C. STORMy interactions: gaze and the modulation of mimicry in adults on the autism spectrum. Psychon Bull Rev. 2017;24:529–35. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-016-1136-0.

  74. 74.

    Wang Y, Hamilton AF de C. Social top-down response modulation (STORM): a model of the control of mimicry in social interaction. Front Hum Neurosci. 2012;6:153. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2012.00153.

  75. 75.

    Kavanagh LC, Suhler CL, Churchland PS, Winkielman P. When it’s an error to mirror: the surprising reputational costs of mimicry. Psychol Sci. 2011;22:1274–6. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797611418678.

  76. 76.

    Clark A. Whatever next? Predictive brains, situated agents, and the future of cognitive science. Behav Brain Sci. 2013;36:181–204. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X12000477.

  77. 77.

    Friston K. The free-energy principle: a unified brain theory? Nat Rev Neurosci. 2010;11:127–38. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn2787.

  78. 78.

    Sinha P, Kjelgaard MM, Gandhi TK, Tsourides K, Cardinaux AL, Pantazis D, et al. Autism as a disorder of prediction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:15220–5. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1416797111.

  79. 79.

    von der Lühe T, Manera V, Barisic I, Becchio C, Vogeley K, Schilbach L. Interpersonal predictive coding, not action perception, is impaired in autism. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci. 2016;371:20150373. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2015.0373.

  80. 80.

    Holper L, Scholkmann F, Wolf M. Between-brain connectivity during imitation measured by fNIRS. Neuroimage. 2012;63:212–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.06.028.

  81. 81.

    Siller M, Sigman M. The behaviors of parents of children with autism predict the subsequent development of their children’s communication. J Autism Dev Disord. 2002;32:77–89. https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1014884404276.

  82. 82.

    Koehne S, Behrends A, Fairhurst MT, Dziobek I. Fostering social cognition through an imitation- and synchronization-based dance/movement intervention in adults with autism spectrum disorder: a controlled proof-of-concept study. Psychother Psychosom. 2016;85:27–35. https://doi.org/10.1159/000441111.

  83. 83.

    Landa RJ, Holman KC, O’Neill AH, Stuart EA. Intervention targeting development of socially synchronous engagement in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder: a randomized controlled trial. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2011;52:13–21. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02288.x.

  84. 84.

    Srinivasan SM, Kaur M, Park IK, Gifford TD, Marsh KL, Bhat AN. The effects of rhythm and robotic interventions on the imitation/praxis, interpersonal synchrony, and motor performance of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD): a pilot randomized controlled trial. Autism Res Treat. 2015;2015:736516. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/736516.

  85. 85.

    Heasman B, Gillespie A. Neurodivergent intersubjectivity: distinctive features of how autistic people create shared understanding. Autism. 2019;23:910–21. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361318785172.

Download references

Funding

Contributions to this article from Elizabeth Redcay and Kathryn A. McNaughton were supported in part by funding from the National Institutes of Mental Health (R01MH107441).

Author information

Correspondence to Elizabeth Redcay.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

This article is part of the Topical Collection on Autism Spectrum Disorders

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

McNaughton, K.A., Redcay, E. Interpersonal Synchrony in Autism. Curr Psychiatry Rep 22, 12 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-020-1135-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Autism spectrum disorder
  • Synchrony
  • Alignment
  • Entrainment
  • Social interaction
  • Interpersonal coordination