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Current Psychiatry Reports

, 21:112 | Cite as

Sex Differences in the Impact of Racial Discrimination on Mental Health Among Black Americans

  • Briana N. Brownlow
  • Effua E. Sosoo
  • Risa N. Long
  • Lori S. Hoggard
  • Tanisha I. Burford
  • LaBarron K. HillEmail author
Sex and Gender Issues in Behavioral Health (CN Epperson and L Hantsoo, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Sex and Gender Issues in Behavioral Health

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Greater racial discrimination is associated with poorer mental health among Black Americans; yet, there remains an incomplete understanding of sex differences in exposure to racial discrimination, and further, of how sex differences in coping with racial discrimination may heighten or diminish risk for poorer mental health.

Recent Findings

Black men may experience greater exposure to both structural and communal forms of racial discrimination, whereas Black women may face both a wider range of potential sources, as well as encounter greater variability in the subjective experience of racial discrimination. For both Black women and men, racial discrimination may be similarly associated with maladaptive coping strategies (i.e., emotional eating, rumination) that also are linked to poorer mental health; however, emerging findings suggest that mindfulness may partially buffer these deleterious effects.

Summary

Overall, the recent literature reveals mixed findings with respect to sex differences in the experience and negative mental health impact of racial discrimination. Despite this heterogeneity, evidence documents sex differences in the settings, type, and qualitative experience of racial discrimination among Black Americans. Additionally, growing evidence indicating that racial discrimination is associated with physiological markers of stress reactivity and psychopathology risk further bolsters its characterization as a unique form of chronic stress among Black Americans and other minority groups in the USA.

Keywords

Racial discrimination Mental health Black Americans Sex differences Emotion regulation Biomarkers 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to acknowledge Dr. C. Jules P. Harrell, as well as Jermaine Lamarr Cole and Kendrick Lamar Duckworth for their continual inspiration and tireless scholarly and artistic efforts to address the pernicious impact of racial discrimination on mental and physical health within the Black American community.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Briana N. Brownlow, Effua E. Sosoo, Risa N. Long, Lori S. Hoggard, and Tanisha I. Burford each declares no potential conflicts of interest.

LaBarron. K. Hill was funded by an National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Supplement Award (121708) during preparation of the manuscript.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with animal subjects performed by any of the authors. This article does reference previously published human subjects research conducted by Lori S. Hoggard and LaBarron K. Hill.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Briana N. Brownlow
    • 1
  • Effua E. Sosoo
    • 2
  • Risa N. Long
    • 3
  • Lori S. Hoggard
    • 4
  • Tanisha I. Burford
    • 5
  • LaBarron K. Hill
    • 6
    • 7
    • 8
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychology and NeuroscienceThe University of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  3. 3.Department of Family MedicineThe Ohio State University Wexner Medical CenterColumbusUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyRutgers-The State University of New JerseyNew BrunswickUSA
  5. 5.Department of PsychologyNorth Carolina Central UniversityDurhamUSA
  6. 6.Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral SciencesDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA
  7. 7.Center for Biobehavioral Health Disparities ResearchDuke University-Social Science Research InstituteDurhamUSA
  8. 8.Center for the Study of Aging and Human DevelopmentDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA

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