Recent Advances in the Early Intervention in Schizophrenia: Future Direction from Preclinical Findings
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Purpose of Review
In the past decade, there has been increasing interest in the potential benefit of early intervention in schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia show cognitive impairment for several years preceding the onset of psychosis. The author discusses the recent topics on prevention of schizophrenia.
Preclinical findings suggest that maternal immune activation (MIA) produces cognitive deficits as a prodromal symptom in juvenile offspring in rodents. Treatment with anti-inflammatory compounds, such as D-serine, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (a TrkB agonist), sulforaphane (or its precursor glucoraphanin), and TPPU (1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea: a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor), during adolescence might prevent the onset of behavioral abnormalities and parvalbumin immunoreactivity in the medial prefrontal cortex of adult offspring after MIA.
Based on the role of inflammation and cognitive impairment in the prodromal state, early intervention using anti-inflammatory compounds (i.e., D-serine, sodium benzoate, TrkB agonist, Nrf2 agonist, soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor) may reduce the risk of subsequent transition to schizophrenia.
KeywordsD-Serine Keap1-Nrf2 Sodium benzoate Soluble epoxide hydrolase Sulforaphane TrkB agonist
The author would like to thank the collaborators who are listed as the co-authors of our papers in the reference list.
This study was supported by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI Grant 17H042431 and Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development Grant JP19dm0107119.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The author declares that there are no conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This review article does not contain any original studies with humans or animal subjects performed by author.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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