Advertisement

Computer-Assisted Cognitive-Behavior Therapy and Mobile Apps for Depression and Anxiety

  • Jesse H. WrightEmail author
  • Matthew Mishkind
  • Tracy D. Eells
  • Steven R. Chan
Psychiatry in the Digital Age (J Shore, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Psychiatry in the Digital Age

Abstract

Purpose of Review

We reviewed research on computer-assisted cognitive-behavior therapy (CCBT) and mobile applications with the goals of assessing the effectiveness of these newer methods of delivering or augmenting treatment and making recommendations on the clinical use of computer tools in psychotherapy of depression and anxiety.

Recent Findings

Research on CCBT has found solid evidence for efficacy when the use of a therapeutic computer program is supported by a clinician or other helping professionals. Lower levels of efficacy or ineffectiveness typically have been found when computer programs are used as stand-alone treatments. A large number of mobile apps have been created that claim to be useful for depression and/or anxiety. However, considerable caution is warranted in evaluating mobile apps and recommending them to patients. Research on mobile apps is still in an early stage of development.

Summary

A number of well-established CCBT programs have been studied in multiple randomized, controlled trials and have been found to be effective. Such programs appear to have adequate quality, security, and efficacy to be used in clinical practice. Mobile apps offer easy portability and immediate access to coping strategies and may be useful for augmenting treatment. But clinicians need to select apps with integrity and reliable content for clinical use.

Keywords

Computer-assisted cognitive-behavior therapy Mobile applications Depression Anxiety 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Jesse H. Wright is an author of the Good Days Ahead (GDA) program used in an investigation cited in this article and has an equity interest in Empower Interactive and Mindstreet, developers and distributors of GDA. He receives no royalties or other payments from sales of this program. His conflict of interest is managed with an agreement with the University of Louisville. He receives book royalties from American Psychiatric Press, Inc., Guilford Press, and Simon and Schuster, and he receives grant support from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the Oticon Foundation.

Matthew Mishkind receives payments to serve on the Advisory Board of Meta Pro. His conflict of interest is managed with an agreement with the University of Colorado.

Tracy D. Eells declares no conflicts of interest.

Steven R. Chan receives compensation for teaching from North American Center for Continuing Medical Education, LLC. and Guidewell Innovation.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    • Thase ME, Wright JH, Eells TD, Barrett MS, Wisniewski SR, Balasubramani GK, et al. Improving the efficiency of psychotherapy for depression: computer-assisted versus standard cbt. Am J Psychiatry. 2018;175(3):242–250.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2017.17010089. A recent direct comparison of CCBT with standard, face-to-face CBT. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Eells TD, Barrett MS, Wright JH, Thase ME. Computer-assisted cognitive-behavior therapy for depression. Psychotherapy. 2014;51(2):191–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Andrews G, Cuijpers P, Craske MG, McEvoy P, Titov N. Computer therapy for the anxiety and depressive disorders is effective, acceptable and practical health care: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2010;5(10):e13196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    •• Richards D, Richardson T. Computer-based psychological treatments for depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Rev. 2012;323(4):329–42.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2012.02.004. A recent meta-analysis of CCBT for depression. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    • Foroushani PS, Schneider J, Assareh N. Meta-review of the effectiveness of computerized CBT in treating depression. BMC Psychiatry. 2011;11:131 http://www.biomedcentral.com/171-244x/11/131. A recent meta-analysis of CCBT for depression. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    • So M, Yamaguchi S, Hashimoto S, Sado M, Furakawa T, McCrone P. Is computerized CBT really helpful for depression? – a meta-analytic re-evaluation of CCBT for adult depression in terms of clinical implementation and methodological validity. BMC Psychiatry. 2013;13:113 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-244x/13/113. A recent meta-analysis of CCBT for depression. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    •• Wright JH, Owen JJ, Richards D, Eells TD, Richardson T, Brown GK, et al. Computer-assisted cognitive-behavior therapy for depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Psychiatry. 2019. A recent meta-analysis of CCBT for depression.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    • Cuijpers P, Marks IM, van Straten A, Cavanaugh K, Gega L, Andersson G. Computer-aided psychotherapy for anxiety disorders: a meta-analytic review. Cogn Behav Ther. 2009;38(2):66–82.  https://doi.org/10.1080/16506070802694776. A recent meta-analysis of CCBT for anxiety disorders.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    •• Haug T, Nordgreen T, Öst LG, Havik OE. Self-help treatment of anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis and meta-regression of effects and potential moderators. Clin Psychol Rev. 2012;32:425–45.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2012.04.002. A recent meta-analysis of CCBT for anxiety disorders.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    •• Adelman CB, Panza KE, Bartley CA, Bontempo A, Bloch MH. A meta-analysis of computerized cognitive-behavioral therapy for the treatment of DSM-5 anxiety disorders. J Clin Psychiatry. 2014;75(7):e695–704.  https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.13r08894. A recent meta-analysis of CCBT for anxiety disorders.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dobson KS. A meta-analysis of the efficacy of cognitive therapy for depression. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1989;57:414–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Robinson LA, Berman JS, Neimeyer RA. Psychotherapy for the treatment of depression: a comprehensive review of controlled outcome research. Psychol Bull. 1990;108:30–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Butler AC, Chapman JE, Forman EM, Beck AT. The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: a review of meta-analyses. Clin Psychol Rev. 2006;26:17–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mohr DC, Ho J, Duffecy J, Baron KG, Lehman KA, Jin L, et al. Perceived barriers to psychological treatments and their relationship to depression. J Clin Psychol. 2010;66(4):394–409.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20659.
  15. 15.
    Mohr DC, Hart SL, Howard I, Julian L, Vella L, Catledge C, et al. Barriers to psychotherapy among depressed and nondepressed primary care patients. Ann Behav Med. 2006;32(3):254–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Proudfoot J, Ryden C, Everitt B, Shapiro DA, Goldberg D, Mann A, et al. Clinical efficacy of computerized cognitive-behavioural therapy for anxiety and depression in primary care: randomized controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry. 2004;185(1):46–54.  https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.185.1.46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Glozier N, Christensen H, Naismith S, Cockayne N, Donkin L, Neal B, et al. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy for adults with mild to moderate depression and high cardiovascular disease risks: a randomized attention-controlled trial. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e59139.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gilbody S, Littlewood E, Hewitt C, et al. Computerised cognitive behaviour therapy (cCBT) as treatment for depression in primary care (REEACT trial): large scale pragmatic randomized controlled trial. BMJ. 2016;352:i195.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Farrer L, Christensen H, Griffiths KM, Mackinnon A. Internet-based CBT for depression with and without telephone tracking in a national helpline: randomized controlled trial. PLoS One. 2011;6(11):e28099.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028099.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hoifodt RS, Lillevoll KR, Griffiths KM, et al. The clinical effectiveness of web-based cognitive behavioral therapy with face-to-face therapist support for depressed primary care patients: randomized controlled trial. J Med Internet Res. 2013;15(8):e153.  https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.2714.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lintvedt OK, Griffiths KM, Sorense K, et al. Evaluating the effectiveness and efficacy of unguided internet-based self-help intervention for the prevention of depression: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Psychol Psychother. 2013;20:10–27.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.770.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Phillips R, Schneider J, Molosankwe I, Leese M, Foroushani PS, Grime P, et al. Randomized controlled trial of computerized cognitive behavioural therapy for depressive symptoms: effectiveness and costs of a workplace intervention. Psychol Med. 2014;44(4):741–52.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291713001323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wright JH, Wright AS, Albano AM, Basco MR, Goldsmith LJ, Raffield T, et al. Computer-assisted cognitive therapy for depression: maintaining efficacy while reducing therapist time. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162(6):1158–64.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.162.6.1158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    •• Carlbring P, Andersson G, Cuijpers P, Riper H, Hedman-Lagerlof E. Internet-based vs. face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for psychiatric and somatic disorders: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Cogn Behav Ther. 2018. A recent meta-analysis of CCBT compared with standard CBT;47(1):1–18.  https://doi.org/10.1080/16506073.2017.1401115.47.
  25. 25.
    Berger T, Hammerli K, Gubser N, Andersson G, Caspar F. Internet-based treatment of depression: a randomized controlled trial comparing guided with unguided self-help. Cogn Behav Ther. 2011;40(4):251–66.  https://doi.org/10.1080/16506073.2011.616531.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Meyer B, Bierbrodt J, Schröder J, Berger T, Beevers CG, Weiss M, et al. Effects of an internet intervention (Deprexis) on severe depression symptoms: randomized controlled trial. Internet Interv. 2015;2(1):48–59.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.invent.2014.12.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Marks IM, Kenwright M, McDonough M, Whittaker M, Mataix-Cols D. Saving clinicians’ time by delegating routine aspects of therapy to a computer: a randomized controlled trial in phobia/panic disorder. Psychol Med. 2004;34(1):9–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Schneider AJ, Mataix-Cols D, Marks IM, Bachofen M. Internet-guided self-help with or without exposure therapy for phobic and panic disorders – a randomized controlled trial. Psychother Psychosom. 2005;74(3):154–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Perini S, Nickolai N, Andrews G. Clinician-assisted internet-based treatment is effective for depression: randomized controlled trial. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2009;43(6):571–8.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00048670902873722.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Titov N, Andrews G, Davies M, McIntyre K, Robinson E, Solley K. Internet treatment for depression: a randomized controlled trial comparing clinician vs. technician assistance. PLoS One. 2010;5(6):e10939.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010939.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Choi I, Zou J, Titov N, et al. Culturally attuned internet treatment for depression amongst Chinese Australians: a randomised controlled trial. J Affect Disord. 2012;136:459–68.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2011.11.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Williams AD, Andrews G. The effectiveness of internet cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) for depression in primary care: a quality assurance study. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e57447.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057447.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Titov N, Andrews G, Choi I, Schwencke G, Johnston L. Randomized controlled trial of web-based treatment of social phobia without clinician guidance. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2009;43(10):913–9.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00048670903179160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Titov N, Andrews G, Choi I, Schwencke G, Mahoney A. Shyness 3: randomized controlled trial of guided versus unguided internet-based CBT for social phobia. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2008;42(12):1030–40.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00048670802512107.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Williams AD, O’Moore K, Mason E, Andrews G. The effectiveness of internet cognitive behaviour therapy (iCBT) for social anxiety disorder across two routine practice pathways. Internet Interv. 2014;1(4):225–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.invent.2014.11.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Titov N, Andrews G, Robinson E, Schwencke G, Johnston L, Solley K, et al. Clinician-assisted internet-based treatment is effective for generalized anxiety disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2009;43:905–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Robinson E, Titov N, Andrews G, McIntyre K, Schwencke G, Solley K. Internet treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: a randomized controlled trial comparing clinician vs. technician assistance. PLoS One. 2010;5(6):e10942.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010942.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mewton L, Wong N, Andrews G. The effectiveness of internet cognitive behavioural therapy for generalized anxiety disorder in clinical practice. Depress Anxiety. 2012;29(10):843–9.  https://doi.org/10.1002/da.21995.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Newman MG, Szkodny LE, Llera SJ, Przeworski A. A review of technology-assisted self-help and minimal contact therapies for anxiety and depression: is human contact necessary for therapeutic efficacy? Clin Psychol Rev. 2011;31(1):89–103.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2010.09.008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Vallury KD, Jones M, Oosterbroek C. Computerized cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety and depression in rural areas: a systematic review. J Med Internet Res. 2015;17(6):e139.  https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.4145.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kampmann IL, Emmelkamp PM, Morina N. Meta-analysis of technology-assisted interventions for social anxiety disorder. J Anxiety Disord. 2016;42:71–84.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2016.06.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Newby JM, Twomey C, Yuan Li SS, Andrews G. Transdiagnostic computerized cognitive behavioural therapy for depression and anxiety: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Affect Disord. 2016;199:30–41.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2016.03.018.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Price RB, Kuckertz JM, Amir N, Bar-Haim Y, Carlbring P, Wallace ML. Less is more: patient-level meta-analysis reveals paradoxical dose-response effects of a computer- based social anxiety intervention targeting attentional bias. Depress Anxiety. 2017;34(12):1106–15.  https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22634.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Reger MA, Gahm GA. A meta-analysis of the effects of internet- and computer-based cognitive-behavioral treatments for anxiety. J Clin Psychol. 2009;65(1):53–75.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20536.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Spek V, Cuijpers P, Nyklicek I, Riper H, Keyzer J, Pop V. Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for symptoms of depression and anxiety: a meta-analysis. Psychol Med. 2007;37(3):319–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Torous J, Wisniewski H, Liu G, Keshavan M. Mental health mobile phone app usage, concerns, and benefits among psychiatric outpatients: comparative survey study. JMIR Mental Health. 2018;5(4):e11715.  https://doi.org/10.2196/mental.11715.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Torous J, Chan RS, Yee Marie Tan S, Behrens J, Mathew I, Conrad EJ, et al. Patient smartphone ownership and interest in mobile apps to monitor symptoms of mental health conditions: a survey in four geographically distinct psychiatric clinics. JMIR Mental Health. 2014;1(1):e5.  https://doi.org/10.2196/mental.4004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Torous J, Friedman R, Keshavan M. Smartphone ownership and interest in mobile applications to monitor symptoms of mental health conditions. JMIR Mental Health. 2014;2(1):e2.  https://doi.org/10.2196/mhealth.2994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gay K, Torous J, Joseph A, Pandya A, Duckworth K. Digital technology use among individuals with schizophrenia: results of an online survey. JMIR Mental Health. 2016;3(2):315.  https://doi.org/10.2196/mental.5379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Poushter J Smartphone ownership and internet usage continues to climb in emerging economies. Pew Research Center. http://www.pewglobal.org/2016/02/22/smartphone-ownership-and-internet-usage-continues-to-climb-in-emergning-economies/. Accessed 9/15/2017, 2017.
  51. 51.
    Jones SP, Patel V, Saxena S, Radcliffe N, Ali Al-Marri S, Darzi A. How Google’s ‘ten Things We Know To Be True’ could guide the development of mental health mobile apps. Health Affairs (Project Hope) (Millwood). 2014;33(9):1603-1611.  https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2014.0380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Perrin A. Smartphones help blacks, Hispanics bridge some – but not all – digital gaps with whites: Pew Research Center. http://www.pewrsr.ch/2vMt0iN. Accessed 28 May 2018.
  53. 53.
    Anderson M. Racial and ethnic differences in how people use mobile technology. Fact tank: news in the numbers: Pew Research Center. 2015. http://www.pewrsr.ch/1Q346jZ.
  54. 54.
    Bry LJ, Chou T, Miguel E, Comer JS. Consumer smartphone apps marketed for child and adolescent anxiety: a systematic review and content analysis. Behav Ther. 2018;49(2):249–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    • Huguet A, Rao S, McGrath PJ, Wozney L, Wheaton M, Conrod J, et al. A systematic review of cognitive behavioral therapy and behavioral activation apps for depression. PLoS One. 2016;11(5):e0154248.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154248. A recent review of mobile apps for depression.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    • Van Singer M, Chatton A, Khazaal Y. Quality of smartphone apps related to panic disorders. Front Psychiatry. 2015;6:96.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2015.00096. A recent review of mobile apps for panic disorder. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Larsen ME, Nicholas J, Christensen H. A systematic assessment of smartphone tools for suicide prevention. PLoS One. 2016;11(4):e0152285.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0152285.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gajecki M, Andersson C, Rosendahl I, Sinadinovic K, Fredriksson M, Berman AH. Skills training via smartphone app for university students with excessive alcohol consumption: a randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 2017;2017:1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12529-016-9629-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ferron JC, Brunette MF, Geiger P, Marsch LA, Adachi-Mejia AM, Bartels SJ. Mobile phone apps for smoking cessation: quality and usability among smokers with psychosis. JMIR Human Factors. 2017;4(1):e7.  https://doi.org/10.2196/humanfactors.5933.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Monteith S, Glenn T. Automated decision-making and big data: concerns for people with mental illness. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2016;18(12):112.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-016-0746-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Meinlschmidt G, Lee JH, Stalujanis E, Belardi A, Oh M, Jung EK, et al. Smartphone-based psychotherapeutic micro-interventions to improve mood in a real-world setting. Front Psychol. 2016;7:1112.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01112.
  62. 62.
    • Mohr DC, Tomasino KN, Lattie EG, Palac HL, Kwasny MJ, Weingardt K, et al. IntelliCare: an eclectic, skills-based app suite for the treatment of depression and anxiety. J Med Internet Res. 2017;19(1):e10.  https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.6645. A recent study of mobile apps for depression and anxiety.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    • Bush NE, Smolenski DJ, Denneson LM, Williams HB, Thomas EK, Dobscha SK. A Virtual Hope Box: randomized controlled trial of a smartphone app for emotional regulation and coping with distress. Psychiatr Serv. 2017;68(4):330–6.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.201600283. A recent study of a mobile app for depression and anxiety.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kuhn E, Kanuri N, Hoffman JE, Garvert DW, Ruzek JL, Taylor CB. A randomized controlled trial of a smartphone app for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2017;85(3):267–73.  https://doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000163.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    •• Firth J, Torous J, Nicholas J, Carney R, Pratap A, Rosenbaum S, et al. The efficacy of smartphone-based mental health interventions for depressive symptoms: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. World Psychiatry. 2017;16(3):287–98.  https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.20472. A recent meta-analysis of mobile apps for depression.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    •• Firth J, Torous J, Nicolas J, Carney R, Rosenbaum S, Sarris J. Can smartphone mental health interventions reduce symptoms of anxiety? A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Affect Disord. 2017;218:15–22.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2017.04.046. A recent meta-analysis of mobile apps for anxiety.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    • Kertz SJ, Kelly JM, Stevens KT, Schrock M, Danitz SB. A review of free iPhone applications designed to target anxiety and worry. Journal of Technology in Behavioral Science. 2017;2017:1–10. A recent review of mobile apps for anxiety.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    van Velthoven M, Powell J. Do health apps need endorsement? Challenges for giving advice about which health apps are safe and effective to use. Digital Health. 2017;3:1–4.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    NHS Digital (Health and Social Care Information Centre). Information and technology for better care: Health and Social Care Information Centre Strategy. 2015;2015–20. https://digital.nhs.uk/about-nhs-digital/corporate-information-and-documents/our-strategy.
  70. 70.
    Baumel A, Faber K, Mathur N, Kane JM, Muench F. Enlight: a comprehensive quality and therapeutic potential evaluation tool for mobile and web-based eHealth interventions. J Med Internet Res. 2017;19(3):e82.  https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.7270.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Stoyanov SR, Hides L, Kavanagh DJ, Zelenko O, Tjondronegoro D, Mani M. Mobile app rating scale: a new toll for assessing the quality of health mobile apps. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2015;3(1):e27.  https://doi.org/10.2196/mhealth.3422.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Stoyanov SR, Hides L, Kavanagh DJ, Wilson H. Development and validation of the user version of the mobile application rating scale (uMARS). JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2016;4(2):e72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Mani M, Kavanagh DJ, Hides L, Stoyanov SR. Review and evaluation of mindfulness-based iPhone apps. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2015;3(3):e82.  https://doi.org/10.2196/mhealth.4328.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    American Psychiatric Association. Mental Health Apps American Psychiatric Associationh, 2017. https://www.psychiatry.org/psychiatrists/practice/mental-health-apps. Accessed July 4, 2017, 2017.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jesse H. Wright
    • 1
    Email author
  • Matthew Mishkind
    • 2
  • Tracy D. Eells
    • 3
  • Steven R. Chan
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.University of LouisvilleLouisvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Family MedicineUniversity of Colorado School of MedicineAuroraUSA
  3. 3.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesUniversity of Louisville School of MedicineLouisvilleUSA
  4. 4.Palo Alto VA Health, Division of Hospital MedicineUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  5. 5.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of California, DavisDavisUSA

Personalised recommendations