Diagnosis and Management of Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Alzheimer’s Disease
Purpose of Review
To explore the most recent developments in the effective diagnosis and treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
The clinical diagnosis of NPS in AD is facilitated by the use of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). CT and MRI scans can be useful for detecting structural changes indicating AD. Other promising diagnostic methodologies that are less frequently used in the clinical setting include positron emission tomography (PET) scans for detecting amyloid and blood tests for detecting serum biomarkers. Numerous pharmaceutical agents have been studied for their use in managing NPS, with antipsychotics being popular for managing agitation but also having significant side effects. Non-pharmacological interventions, such as reminiscence therapy and the Describe, Investigate, Create, Evaluate (DICE) approach may be able to provide treatment without such adverse effects.
Diagnosing AD and the comorbid NPS remains primarily a clinical endeavor with CT and MRI scans sometimes used, but evidence is amassing for the use of other imaging modalities and different lab tests for convenient and empiric diagnosis of AD to distinguish it from other psychiatric illnesses. The number of pharmacologic treatments for NPS that are safe as well as efficacious remains limited, yet non-pharmacologic interventions have clear clinical utility. In addition to searching for more successful pharmacological treatments, further research should focus on novel diagnostic tests and non-pharmacologic therapies.
KeywordsNeuropsychiatric symptoms Alzheimer’s disease Antipsychotics Brain imaging DICE method Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors
The editors would like to thank Dr. Madhavi Nagalla for taking the time to review this manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
David Wolinsky, Karina Drake, and Jolene Bostwick each declare no potential conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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