The Evolution of Surgical Enhanced Recovery Pathways: a Review

  • Amir Elhassan
  • Ahmed Ahmed
  • Hamdy Awad
  • Michelle Humeidan
  • Viet Nguyen
  • Elyse M. Cornett
  • Richard D. Urman
  • Alan David KayeEmail author
Other Pain (A Kaye and N Vadivelu, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Other Pain


Purpose of Review

Enhanced recovery pathways are a well-defined perioperative health care program utilizing evidence-based interventions in a protocol-like manner designed to standardize techniques including drug selection and dosing to improve results and to reduce overall costs including facilitating earlier discharge from hospitals after surgery.

Recent Findings

A PubMed and World Wide Web search was performed with the following key words: enhanced recovery, surgical enhanced recovery, recovery pathways, and enhanced recovery pathways surgery.


This introduction to enhanced recovery pathways reflects its 20-year history, worldwide appeal, and ever growing presence in our practices. Many clinical teams have not, as of yet, incorporated enhanced recovery pathway principles to their practices and therefore, continued evolution should include increasing outreach and formalized guidelines in the future.


Enhanced recovery pathways Surgery Nutrition Postoperative care Preoperative care Fast track recovery 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Amir Elhassan, Ahmed Ahmed, Hamdy Awad, Michelle Humeidan, Viet Nguyen, Elyse M. Cornett, Richard D. Urman, and Alan David Kaye declare no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major Importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amir Elhassan
    • 1
  • Ahmed Ahmed
    • 1
  • Hamdy Awad
    • 1
  • Michelle Humeidan
    • 1
  • Viet Nguyen
    • 2
  • Elyse M. Cornett
    • 3
  • Richard D. Urman
    • 4
  • Alan David Kaye
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyOhio State University School of MedicineColumbusUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Anesthesiology and PharmacologyLSU Health Science CenterNew OrleansUSA
  3. 3.Department of AnesthesiologyLSU Health ShreveportShreveportUSA
  4. 4.Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain MedicineBrigham and Women’s HospitalBostonUSA

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