Recent Discoveries in Monogenic Disorders of Childhood Bone Fragility
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Purpose of Review
This review summarizes our current knowledge on primary osteoporosis in children with focus on recent genetic findings.
Advances in genetic research, particularly next-generation sequencing, have found several genetic loci that associate with monogenic forms of inherited osteoporosis, widening the scope of primary osteoporosis beyond classical osteogenesis imperfecta. New forms of primary osteoporosis, such as those related to WNT1, PLS3, and XYLT2, have identified defects outside the extracellular matrix components and collagen-related pathways, in intracellular cascades directly affecting bone cell function.
Primary osteoporosis can lead to severe skeletal morbidity, including abnormal longitudinal growth, compromised bone mass gain, and noticeable fracture tendency beginning at childhood. Early diagnosis and timely care are warranted to ensure the best achievable bone health. Future research will most likely broaden the spectrum of primary osteoporosis, hopefully provide more insight into the genetics governing bone health, and offer new targets for treatment.
KeywordsPrimary osteoporosis WNT1 PLS3 XYLT2 Osteogenesis imperfect
Our research is financially supported by the Academy of Finland, the Sigrid Jusélius Foundation, the Folkhälsan Research Foundation, the Novo Nordisk Foundation, the Swedish Research Council, the Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation, the Helsinki University Hospital research funds, and through the regional agreement on medical training and clinical research (ALF) between the Stockholm County Council and the Karolinska Institutet.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Outi Mäkitie reports payment for lecture and advisory board membership from Alexion and KyoawKirin.
Anders Kämpe, Riikka Mäkitie, and Fulya Taylan declare no conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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