Surgical Management of Lung Cancer: History, Evolution, and Modern Advances
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Purpose of Review
Although surgery for lung cancer was not common before the early twentieth century, it has enjoyed remarkable progress since then both in type of resection and technical approach. This has been coupled with significant technological advances. Here, we will review the history and evolution of this relatively new field of surgery.
The gold standard of the extent of resection for lung cancer evolved from pneumonectomy to lobectomy to even sublobar resection for select situations. In addition, major advances have occurred in the technical aspect of the surgical procedure. The incisional approach has evolved from rib spreading thoracotomy to thoracoscopic surgery with the latter showing significant improvement in short-term outcomes over open thoracotomy. However, standard video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery or VATS is associated with visual and mechanical limitations, including lack of depth perception and rigid straight instruments. This makes it appropriate only for early-stage peripheral and small tumors. Most of the limitations of VATS can be overcome with the more recently introduced robotic-assisted thoracic surgery (RATS). RATS utilizes wristed instruments that are introduced in the chest through 8-mm ports and can mimic the movements of the human hand. In addition, magnified, three-dimensional and high definition imaging gives the surgeon an image of the lung unlike any other modality. This has allowed surgeons to perform advanced resections such as pneumonectomy or sleeve resection in a minimally invasive fashion. In addition, RATS has become a platform for the addition of other technical enhancements such as incorporating a near infra-red light source into the camera allowing identification of autoflourescent agents, such as indocyanin green. This has allowed localization of small nodules for resection and identification of tissue planes for sublobar resection. However, new technologies also require investments in time and money.
Thoracic surgery for lung cancer has evolved to include advanced minimally invasive techniques including video-assisted and robotic-assisted thoracoscopy. RATS in particular may enable surgeons to perform more advanced procedures in a minimally invasive fashion. It is hoped that the higher costs of new surgical technology may be offset by the potential for improved patient outcomes and resultant socioeconomic benefits.
KeywordsThoracic surgery Pneumonectomy Lobectomy Sublobar resection Segmentectomy Thoracotomy Video-assisted thoracoscopy VATS Robotic-assisted thoracoscopy RATS
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Abbas E. Abbas has received compensation from Intuitive Surgical, Inc. for service as a consultant.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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