Pseudoprogression of Melanoma Brain Metastases
Purpose of Review
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are increasingly being used to treat melanoma brain metastases. One potential complication of immune checkpoint inhibitors is a phenomenon called pseudoprogression, in which a tumor transiently increases in size due to lymphocyte infiltration. This article reviews the characteristics of pseudoprogression and their clinical implications.
Pseudoprogression can be challenging to differentiate from true progression noted clinically or radiographically, thereby complicating management decisions and potentially confusing patients and their families. The transient tumor enlargement can also cause symptoms that mimic true tumor progression.
Because the use of immunotherapy on melanoma brain metastases is a relatively new treatment paradigm, there is limited evidence to guide clinical decision-making and prognostication related to pseudoprogression.
KeywordsMelanoma Brain metastasis Pseudoprogression Immunotherapy
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Jillian L. Simard has two patents issued - #8940724, Quinoline derivatives and their uses, and #8765940, Heterocyclic compounds and their uses. Both are licensed to Amgen, but Dr. Simard has no current financial interest in Amgen.
Melanie Smith declares that she has no conflict of interest.
Sunandana Chandra has received consulting fees from Bristol-Myers Squibb, EMD Serono, Biodesix, Sanofi Genzyme, and Regeneron.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major Importance
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