Mucosal Melanoma: a Literature Review
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Purpose of review
Mucosal melanoma is of great interest due to its aggressive behavior and less favorable prognosis. The literature is mainly case reports and case series. Here, we will collect the knowledge on mucosal melanoma from the last decade and review the literature. The main focus is being site-specific clinical features, treatment, and prognosis.
The use of immunotherapy gain ground as for others subsets of melanoma. Anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1/ PD-L1 blockade in mucosal melanoma have been evaluated in recent studies. Clinical trials are ongoing.
The etiology of mucosal melanomas remains unknown. Head and neck mucosal melanomas are most common. Wide excision surgery is the treatment of choice. The effect of adjuvant therapy on survival remains questionable due to the limited knowledge. Radiotherapy seems to give better local control. The overall five-year survival rate for mucosal melanomas is 0–45%. Recent data indicates that this may be improved by the immunotherapy in the years to come.
KeywordsMucosal melanoma Treatment Surgery Immunotherapy Checkpoint inhibitors CTLA-4 PD-1 PD-L1 Ipilimumab Nivolumab Pembrolizumab
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Simon Skovsted Yde, Pia Sjoegren, Martin Heje, and Lars B. Stolle declare they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance
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