Sherpas, Coca Leaves, and Planes: High Altitude and Airplane Headache Review with a Case of Post-LASIK Myopic Shift
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Purpose of Review
High altitude headache is a common neurological symptom that is associated with ascent to high altitude. It is classified by the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd Edition (ICHD-3) as a disorder of homeostasis. In this article, we review recent clinical and insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms of high altitude and airplane headache. We also report a second case of post-LASIK myopic shift at high altitude exposure secondary hypoxia. Headache attributed to airplane travel is a severe typically unilateral orbital headache that usually improves after landing. This was a relative recent introduction to the ICHD-3 diagnostic criteria. Headache pain with flight travel has long been known and may have been previously considered as a part of barotrauma. Recent studies have helped identify this as a distinct headache disorder.
Physiologic, hematological, and biochemical biomarkers have been identified in recent high altitude studies. There have been recent advance in identification of molecular mechanisms underlying neurophysiologic changes secondary to hypoxia. Calcitonin gene–related peptide, a potent vasodilator, has been implicated in migraine pathophysiology. Recent epidemiological studies indicate that the prevalence of airplane headache may be more common than we think in the adult as well at the pediatric population. Simulated flight studies have identified potential biomarkers.
Although research is limited, there have been advances in both clinical and pathophysiological mechanisms associated with high altitude and airplane headache.
KeywordsHigh altitude headache Hypoxia Acute mountain sickness Airplane Headache Sinus barotrauma Headache disorder attributed to homeostasis
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Shivang G. Joshi and Laszlo Mechtler each declare no potential conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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