Predicting Concussion Recovery in Children and Adolescents in the Emergency Department

  • Vanessa C. Rausa
  • Vicki Anderson
  • Franz E. Babl
  • Michael TakagiEmail author
Neurotrauma (D. Sandsmark, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Neurotrauma


Purpose of Review

Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), represents the majority of pediatric Emergency Department (ED) presentations of TBI. While most children and adolescents will recover within 4 weeks of injury, approximately one third will continue to experience persisting symptoms. This review aimed to provide an overview of literature from the past 5 years examining predictors of recovery in the ED.

Recent Findings

Predictors could be characterized into three categories; (i) cognition, (ii) proteomics, and (iii) pre-injury/injury-related factors. There is preliminary support for the use of computerized neuropsychological testing. The prognostic use of proteomics is a promising area of future research. Pre-injury and injury-related characteristics have been thoroughly examined and developed into a clinical risk score for predicting delayed recovery.


Substantial progress has been made in identifying risk factors for delayed recovery at ED presentation. The current evidence provides a platform for additional research that can refine and validate these predictors.


Concussion Mild traumatic brain injury Emergency department Recovery Prediction Pediatrics 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Vanessa C. Rausa, Vicki Anderson, Franz E Babl, and Michael Takagi each declare no potential conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vanessa C. Rausa
    • 1
  • Vicki Anderson
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Franz E. Babl
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Michael Takagi
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Clinical Sciences ResearchMurdoch Children’s Research InstituteParkvilleAustralia
  2. 2.Royal Children’s HospitalMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.Melbourne School of Psychological SciencesUniversity of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia

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