Sleep in Parkinson’s Disease with Impulse Control Disorder

  • Michela Figorilli
  • Patrizia Congiu
  • Rosa Lecca
  • Gioia Gioi
  • Roberto Frau
  • Monica PulighedduEmail author
Sleep (M Thorpy and M Billiard, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Sleep


Purpose of Review

This paper aims to explore the relationship between impulse-control disorders (ICDs) and sleep problems in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) among scientific literature.

Recent Findings

Previously published results are controversial and sometimes inconclusive. ICDs and sleep disruption represent important non-motor features of Parkinson’s disease, responsible for reducing quality of life and increasing burden of disease. The relationship between sleep problems and ICDs is complex and bidirectional. Indeed, sleep disturbances and fragmentation may play a crucial role in increasing susceptibility to impulsive behavior and may represent a risk factor for developing ICDs in PD patients. Moreover, REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and restless legs syndrome (RLS) have been indicated as independent risk factors for ICDs in PD patients. On the other hand, also ICDs may lead to sleep restriction and fragmentation, suggesting a bidirectional relationship.


The association between sleep problems and ICDs in PD is far from being completely understood. Further studies are needed to confirm the nature of this relationship and its pathophysiology.


Sleep Parkinson’s disease Impulse control disorder Rem behavior disorder 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5. 5th ed. Washington, D.C: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Averbeck BB, O’Sullivan SS, Djamshidian A. Impulsive and compulsive behaviors in Parkinson’s disease. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2014;10:553–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schreiber L, Odlaug BL, Grant JE. Impulse control disorders: updated review of clinical characteristics and pharmacological management. Front Psychiatry. 2011;2:1.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    •• Weintraub D, David AS, Evans AH, Grant JE, Stacy M. Clinical spectrum of impulse control disorders in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2015;30:121–7. This manuscript encompasses the multifaceted clinical spectrum of ICDs in PD patients. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    •• Weintraub D, Claassen DO. Impulse control and related disorders in Parkinson’s disease. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2017;133:679–717. This manuscript represents an extensive review of ICDs in PD population. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Voon V, Sohr M, Lang AE, Potenza MN, Siderowf AD, Whetteckey J, et al. Impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease: a multicenter case-control study. Ann Neurol. 2011;69:986–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vitale C, Santangelo G, Trojano L, Verde F, Rocco M, Grossi D, et al. Comparative neuropsychological profile of pathological gambling, hypersexuality, and compulsive eating in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2011;26:830–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Scullin MK, Sollinger AB, Land J, Wood-Siverio C, Zanders L, Lee R, et al. Sleep and impulsivity in Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2013;19:991–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Marques A, Figorilli M, Pereira B, Derost P, Debilly B, Beudin P, et al. Impulse control disorders in Parkinson’s disease patients with RLS: a cross sectional-study. Sleep Med. 2018;48:148–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    •• Fantini ML, Figorilli M, Arnulf I, et al. Sleep and REM sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson’s disease with impulse control disorder. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2017:jnnp-2017-316576. This study had shown a correlation between RBD and ICDs in PD patients, suggesting RBD as an independent risk factor for ICDs in this population. Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Diederich NJ, McIntyre DJ. Sleep disorders in Parkinson’s disease: many causes, few therapeutic options. J Neurol Sci. 2012;314:12–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schrempf W, Brandt MD, Storch A, Reichmann H. Sleep disorders in Parkinson’s disease. J Park Dis. 2014;4:211–21.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Riedel O, Klotsche J, Spottke A, Deuschl G, Förstl H, Henn F, et al. Frequency of dementia, depression, and other neuropsychiatric symptoms in 1,449 outpatients with Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol. 2010;257:1073–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Barone P, Antonini A, Colosimo C, Marconi R, Morgante L, Avarello TP, et al. The PRIAMO study: a multicenter assessment of nonmotor symptoms and their impact on quality of life in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2009;24:1641–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ondo WG. Sleep/wake problems in Parkinson’s disease: pathophysiology and clinicopathologic correlations. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2014;121(Suppl 1):S3–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Maloney EM, Djamshidian A, O’Sullivan SS. Phenomenology and epidemiology of impulsive-compulsive behaviours in Parkinson’s disease, atypical Parkinsonian disorders and non-Parkinsonian populations. J Neurol Sci. 2017;374:47–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    • Weintraub D. Impulse control disorders in Parkinson’s disease: prevalence and possible risk factors. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2009;15:S110–3. This manuscript discusses comprehensively possible risk factors for ICDs in PD patients. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Weintraub D, Koester J, Potenza MN, Siderowf AD, Stacy M, Voon V, et al. Impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease: a cross-sectional study of 3090 patients. Arch Neurol. 2010;67:589–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Voon V, Hassan K, Zurowski M, Duff-Canning S, de Souza M, Fox S, et al. Prospective prevalence of pathologic gambling and medication association in Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2006;66:1750–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gallagher DA, O’Sullivan SS, Evans AH, Lees AJ, Schrag A. Pathological gambling in Parkinson’s disease: risk factors and differences from dopamine dysregulation. An analysis of published case series. Mov Disord. 2007;22:1757–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Djamshidian A, Cardoso F, Grosset D, Bowden-Jones H, Lees AJ. Pathological gambling in Parkinson’s disease--a review of the literature. Mov Disord. 2011;26:1976–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Voon V, Hassan K, Zurowski M, de Souza M, Thomsen T, Fox S, et al. Prevalence of repetitive and reward-seeking behaviors in Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2006;67:1254–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Raina G, Cersosimo MG, Micheli F. Zoophilia and impulse control disorder in a patient with Parkinson disease. J Neurol. 2012;259:969–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Solla P, Cannas A, Marrosu MG, Marrosu F. Dopaminergic-induced paraphilias associated with impulse control and related disorders in patients with Parkinson disease. J Neurol. 2012;259:2752–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cossu G, Rinaldi R, Colosimo C. The rise and fall of impulse control behavior disorders. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2018;46:S24–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kafka MP. Hypersexual disorder: a proposed diagnosis for DSM-V. Arch Sex Behav. 2010;39:377–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Black DW. Compulsive buying disorder: a review of the evidence. CNS Spectr. 2007;12:124–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Evans AH, Katzenschlager R, Paviour D, O'Sullivan JD, Appel S, Lawrence AD, et al. Punding in Parkinson’s disease: its relation to the dopamine dysregulation syndrome. Mov Disord. 2004;19:397–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Voon V. Repetition, repetition, and repetition: compulsive and punding behaviors in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2004;19:367–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    O’Sullivan SS, Evans AH, Lees AJ. Punding in Parkinson’s disease. Pract Neurol. 2007;7:397–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    O’Sullivan SS, Djamshidian A, Evans AH, Loane CM, Lees AJ, Lawrence AD. Excessive hoarding in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2010;25:1026–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Giovannoni G, O’sullivan JD, Turner K, Manson AJ, Lees AJL. Hedonistic homeostatic dysregulation in patients with Parkinson’s disease on dopamine replacement therapies. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2000;68:423–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Weintraub D, Hoops S, Shea JA, Lyons KE, Pahwa R, Driver-Dunckley ED, et al. Validation of the questionnaire for impulsive-compulsive disorders in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2009;24:1461–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Evans AH, Lawrence AD, Potts J, Appel S, Lees AJ. Factors influencing susceptibility to compulsive dopaminergic drug use in Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2005;65:1570–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Phu AL, Xu Z, Brakoulias V, et al. Effect of impulse control disorders on disability and quality of life in Parkinson’s disease patients. J Clin Neurosci. 2014;21:63–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Weintraub D, Siderowf AD, Potenza MN, Goveas J, Morales KH, Duda JE, et al. Association of dopamine agonist use with impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol. 2006;63:969–73.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Goerlich-Dobre KS, Probst C, Winter L, Witt K, Deuschl G, Möller B, et al. Alexithymia-an independent risk factor for impulsive-compulsive disorders in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2014;29:214–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Christenson GA, Faber RJ, de Zwaan M, Raymond NC, Specker SM, Ekern MD, et al. Compulsive buying: descriptive characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity. J Clin Psychiatry. 1994;55:5–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Weintraub D, Mamikonyan E, Papay K, Shea JA, Xie SX, Siderowf A. Questionnaire for impulsive-compulsive disorders in Parkinson’s Disease-Rating Scale. Mov Disord. 2012;27:242–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cabrini S, Baratti M, Bonfà F, Cabri G, Uber E, Avanzi M. Preliminary evaluation of the DDS-PC inventory: a new tool to assess impulsive-compulsive behaviours associated to dopamine replacement therapy in Parkinson’s disease. Neurol Sci. 2009;30:307–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    •• Ardouin C, Chéreau I, Llorca P-M, et al. Assessment of hyper- and hypodopaminergic behaviors in Parkinson’s disease. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2009;165:845–56. This manuscript had elaborated a diagnostic tool for hyper- and hypodopaminergic behaviors in PD patients, including ICDs. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Goetz CG, Tilley BC, Shaftman SR, Stebbins GT, Fahn S, Martinez-Martin P, et al. Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS): scale presentation and clinimetric testing results. Mov Disord. 2008;23:2129–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Goetz CG, Tilley BC, Stebbins GT. Dopamine dysregulation syndrome item from the MDS-UPDRS. Mov Disord. 2012;27:166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Okai D, Askey-Jones S, Mack J, Martin A, Chaudhuri KR, Samuel M, et al. Parkinson’s impulse-control scale for the severity rating of impulse-control behaviors in Parkinson’s disease: a semistructured clinical assessment tool. Mov Disord Clin Pract. 2016;3:494–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    O’Sullivan SS, Wu K, Politis M, et al. Cue-induced striatal dopamine release in Parkinson’s disease-associated impulsive-compulsive behaviours. Brain. 2011;134:969–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Steeves TDL, Miyasaki J, Zurowski M, Lang AE, Pellecchia G, van Eimeren T, et al. Increased striatal dopamine release in Parkinsonian patients with pathological gambling: a [11C] raclopride PET study. Brain J Neurol. 2009;132:1376–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Muresanu DF, Stan A, Buzoianu A. Neuroplasticity and impulse control disorders. J Neurol Sci. 2012;316:15–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lee J-Y, Kim J-M, Kim JW, Cho J, Lee WY, Kim HJ, et al. Association between the dose of dopaminergic medication and the behavioral disturbances in Parkinson disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2010;16:202–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Miyazaki K, Miyazaki KW, Doya K. The role of serotonin in the regulation of patience and impulsivity. Mol Neurobiol. 2012;45:213–24.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Voon V, Pessiglione M, Brezing C, Gallea C, Fernandez HH, Dolan RJ, et al. Mechanisms underlying dopamine-mediated reward bias in compulsive behaviors. Neuron. 2010;65:135–42.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Evans AH, Pavese N, Lawrence AD, Tai YF, Appel S, Doder M, et al. Compulsive drug use linked to sensitized ventral striatal dopamine transmission. Ann Neurol. 2006;59:852–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Cilia R, Ko JH, Cho SS, van Eimeren T, Marotta G, Pellecchia G, et al. Reduced dopamine transporter density in the ventral striatum of patients with Parkinson’s disease and pathological gambling. Neurobiol Dis. 2010;39:98–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Voon V, Rizos A, Chakravartty R, Mulholland N, Robinson S, Howell NA, et al. Impulse control disorders in Parkinson’s disease: decreased striatal dopamine transporter levels. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2014;85:148–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Premi E, Pilotto A, Garibotto V, Bigni B, Turrone R, Alberici A, et al. Impulse control disorder in PD: a lateralized monoaminergic frontostriatal disconnection syndrome? Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2016;30:62–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Carriere N, Lopes R, Defebvre L, Delmaire C, Dujardin K. Impaired corticostriatal connectivity in impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2015;84:2116–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Cerasa A, Salsone M, Nigro S, Chiriaco C, Donzuso G, Bosco D, et al. Cortical volume and folding abnormalities in Parkinson’s disease patients with pathological gambling. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2014;20:1209–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lee J-Y, Lee EK, Park SS, Lim JY, Kim HJ, Kim JS, et al. Association of DRD3 and GRIN2B with impulse control and related behaviors in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2009;24:1803–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lee J-Y, Jeon BS, Kim H-J, Park S-S. Genetic variant of HTR2A associates with risk of impulse control and repetitive behaviors in Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2012;18:76–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Zainal Abidin S, Tan EL, Chan S-C, Jaafar A, Lee AX, Abd Hamid MHN, et al. DRD and GRIN2B polymorphisms and their association with the development of impulse control behaviour among Malaysian Parkinson’s disease patients. BMC Neurol. 2015;15:59.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Comings DE, Ferry L, Bradshaw-Robinson S, Burchette R, Chiu C, Muhleman D. The dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene: a genetic risk factor in smoking. Pharmacogenetics. 1996;6:73–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lobo DSS, Souza RP, Tong RP, Casey DM, Hodgins DC, Smith GJ, et al. Association of functional variants in the dopamine D2-like receptors with risk for gambling behaviour in healthy Caucasian subjects. Biol Psychol. 2010;85:33–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Foltynie T, Lewis SGJ, Goldberg TE, Blackwell AD, Kolachana BS, Weinberger DR, et al. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism has a gender specific influence on planning ability in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol. 2005;252:833–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Cormier F, Muellner J, Corvol J-C. Genetics of impulse control disorders in Parkinson’s disease. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2013;120:665–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Vallelunga A, Flaibani R, Formento-Dojot P, Biundo R, Facchini S, Antonini A. Role of genetic polymorphisms of the dopaminergic system in Parkinson’s disease patients with impulse control disorders. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2012;18:397–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Antonini A, Chaudhuri KR, Boroojerdi B, Asgharnejad M, Bauer L, Grieger F, et al. Impulse control disorder related behaviours during long-term rotigotine treatment: a post hoc analysis. Eur J Neurol. 2016;23:1556–65.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Barbosa P, Lees AJ, Magee C, Djamshidian A, Warner TT. A retrospective evaluation of the frequency of impulsive compulsive behaviors in Parkinson’s disease patients treated with continuous waking day apomorphine pumps. Mov Disord Clin Pract. 2017;4:323–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Rizos A, Sauerbier A, Antonini A, Weintraub D, Martinez-Martin P, Kessel B, et al. A European multicentre survey of impulse control behaviours in Parkinson’s disease patients treated with short- and long-acting dopamine agonists. Eur J Neurol. 2016;23:1255–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Pontieri FE, Assogna F, Pellicano C, Cacciari C, Pannunzi S, Morrone A, et al. Sociodemographic, neuropsychiatric and cognitive characteristics of pathological gambling and impulse control disorders NOS in Parkinson’s disease. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015;25:69–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Broen M, Duits A, Visser-Vandewalle V, Temel Y, Winogrodzka A. Impulse control and related disorders in Parkinson’s disease patients treated with bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation: a review. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2011;17:413–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Okun MS, Weintraub D. Should impulse control disorders and dopamine dysregulation syndrome be indications for deep brain stimulation and intestinal levodopa?: ICD and dopamine dysregulation. Mov Disord. 2013;28:1915–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Voon V, Fox SH. Medication-related impulse control and repetitive behaviors in Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol. 2007;64:1089–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Valença GT, Glass PG, Negreiros NN, Duarte MB, Ventura LMGB, Mueller M, et al. Past smoking and current dopamine agonist use show an independent and dose-dependent association with impulse control disorders in Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2013;19:698–700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Pettorruso M, Martinotti G, Fasano A, Loria G, di Nicola M, de Risio L, et al. Anhedonia in Parkinson’s disease patients with and without pathological gambling: a case-control study. Psychiatry Res. 2014;215:448–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    O’Sullivan SS, Loane CM, Lawrence AD, Evans AH, Piccini P, Lees AJ. Sleep disturbance and impulsive-compulsive behaviours in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2011;82:620–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Bayard S, Dauvilliers Y, Yu H, Croisier-Langenier M, Rossignol A, Charif M, et al. Impulse control disorder and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2014;20:1411–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Carbunaru S, Eisinger RS, Ramirez-Zamora A, Bassan D, Cervantes-Arriaga A, Rodriguez-Violante M, et al. Impulse control disorders in Parkinson’s: sleep disorders and nondopaminergic associations. Brain Behav. 2018;8:e00904.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Killgore WDS, Balkin TJ, Wesensten NJ. Impaired decision making following 49 h of sleep deprivation. J Sleep Res. 2006;15:7–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Killgore WDS, Kahn-Greene ET, Lipizzi EL, Newman RA, Kamimori GH, Balkin TJ. Sleep deprivation reduces perceived emotional intelligence and constructive thinking skills. Sleep Med. 2008;9:517–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Yoo S-S, Gujar N, Hu P, Jolesz FA, Walker MP. The human emotional brain without sleep — a prefrontal amygdala disconnect. Curr Biol. 2007;17:R877–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Menz MM, Büchel C, Peters J. Sleep deprivation is associated with attenuated parametric valuation and control signals in the midbrain during value-based decision making. J Neurosci. 2012;32:6937–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Gujar N, Yoo S-S, Hu P, Walker MP. Sleep deprivation amplifies reactivity of brain reward networks, biasing the appraisal of positive emotional experiences. J Neurosci. 2011;31:4466–74.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Paavonen EJ, Räikkönen K, Lahti J, et al. Short sleep duration and behavioral symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in healthy 7- to 8-year-old children. Pediatrics. 2009;123:e857–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Pourcher E, Rémillard S, Cohen H. Compulsive habits in restless legs syndrome patients under dopaminergic treatment. J Neurol Sci. 2010;290:52–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Parekh PK, Ozburn AR, McClung CA. Circadian clock genes: effects on dopamine, reward and addiction. Alcohol. 2015;49:341–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Vitaterna MH, Ko CH, Chang A-M, Buhr ED, Fruechte EM, Schook A, et al. The mouse clock mutation reduces circadian pacemaker amplitude and enhances efficacy of resetting stimuli and phase-response curve amplitude. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2006;103:9327–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    McClung CA, Sidiropoulou K, Vitaterna M, Takahashi JS, White FJ, Cooper DC, et al. Regulation of dopaminergic transmission and cocaine reward by the Clock gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:9377–81.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Logan RW, McCulley WD, Seggio JA, Rosenwasser AM. Effects of withdrawal from chronic intermittent ethanol vapor on the level and circadian periodicity of running-wheel activity in C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2012;36:467–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gamsby JJ, Templeton EL, Bonvini LA, Wang W, Loros JJ, Dunlap JC, et al. The circadian Per1 and Per2 genes influence alcohol intake, reinforcement, and blood alcohol levels. Behav Brain Res. 2013;249:15–21.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Webb IC, Baltazar RM, Wang X, Pitchers KK, Coolen LM, Lehman MN. Diurnal variations in natural and drug reward, mesolimbic tyrosine hydroxylase, and clock gene expression in the male rat. J Biol Rhythm. 2009;24:465–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Baltazar RM, Coolen LM, Webb IC. Diurnal rhythms in neural activation in the mesolimbic reward system: critical role of the medial prefrontal cortex. Eur J Neurosci. 2013;38:2319–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hasler BP, Clark DB. Circadian misalignment, reward-related brain function, and adolescent alcohol involvement. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2013;37:558–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Falcón E, McClung CA. A role for the circadian genes in drug addiction. Neuropharmacology. 2009;56(Suppl 1):91–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Abarca C, Albrecht U, Spanagel R. Cocaine sensitization and reward are under the influence of circadian genes and rhythm. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:9026–30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Djamshidian A, Poewe W, Högl B. Impact of impulse control disorders on sleep-wake regulation in Parkinson’s disease. Park Dis. 2015;2015:1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Pontone G, Williams JR, Bassett SS, Marsh L. Clinical features associated with impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2006;67:1258–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Cummings JL, Mega M, Gray K, Rosenberg-Thompson S, Carusi DA, Gornbein J. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory: comprehensive assessment of psychopathology in dementia. Neurology. 1994;44:2308–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Chaudhuri KR, Pal S, DiMarco A, Whately-Smith C, Bridgman K, Mathew R, et al. The Parkinson’s disease sleep scale: a new instrument for assessing sleep and nocturnal disability in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2002;73:629–35.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Borek LL, Kohn R, Friedman JH. Mood and sleep in Parkinson’s disease. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006;67:958–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Martinez-Martin P, Visser M, Rodriguez-Blazquez C, Marinus J, Chaudhuri KR, van Hilten J, et al. SCOPA-sleep and PDSS: two scales for assessment of sleep disorder in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2008;23:1681–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Schmidt RE, Gay P, Van der Linden M. Facets of impulsivity are differentially linked to insomnia: evidence from an exploratory study. Behav Sleep Med. 2008;6:178–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Frussa-Filho R, Gonçalves MTM, Andersen ML, de Araujo NP, Chinen CC, Tufik S. Paradoxical sleep deprivation potentiates amphetamine-induced behavioural sensitization by increasing its conditioned component. Brain Res. 2004;1003:188–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Schenck CH, Bundlie SR, Ettinger MG, Mahowald MW. Chronic behavioral disorders of human REM sleep: a new category of parasomnia. Sleep. 1986;9:293–308.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Postuma RB, Gagnon J-F, Montplaisir JY. REM sleep behavior disorder: from dreams to neurodegeneration. Neurobiol Dis. 2012;46:553–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Gagnon JF, Bédard MA, Fantini ML, et al. REM sleep behavior disorder and REM sleep without atonia in Parkinson’s disease. Neurology. 2002;59:585–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Fereshtehnejad S-M, Romenets SR, Anang JBM, Latreille V, Gagnon J-F, Postuma RB. New clinical subtypes of Parkinson disease and their longitudinal progression: a prospective cohort comparison with other phenotypes. JAMA Neurol. 2015;72:863–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Fereshtehnejad S-M, Postuma RB. Subtypes of Parkinson’s disease: what do they tell us about disease progression? Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2017;17:34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Kim YE, Jeon BS, Yang H-J, Ehm G, Yun JY, Kim HJ, et al. REM sleep behavior disorder: association with motor complications and impulse control disorders in Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2014;20:1081–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Fantini ML, Macedo L, Zibetti M, Sarchioto M, Vidal T, Pereira B, et al. Increased risk of impulse control symptoms in Parkinson’s disease with REM sleep behaviour disorder. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2015;86:174–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Romenets SR, Gagnon J-F, Latreille V, Panniset M, Chouinard S, Montplaisir J, et al. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and subtypes of Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2012;27:996–1003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Sixel-Doring F, Trautmann E, Mollenhauer B, Trenkwalder C. Associated factors for REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2011;77:1048–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Garcia-Borreguero D, Cano-Pumarega I. New concepts in the management of restless legs syndrome. BMJ. 2017;356:j104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Högl B, García-Borreguero D, Kohnen R, Ferini-Strambi L, Hadjigeorgiou G, Hornyak M, et al. Progressive development of augmentation during long-term treatment with levodopa in restless legs syndrome: results of a prospective multi-center study. J Neurol. 2010;257:230–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Voon V, Schoerling A, Wenzel S, Ekanayake V, Reiff J, Trenkwalder C, et al. Frequency of impulse control behaviours associated with dopaminergic therapy in restless legs syndrome. BMC Neurol. 2011;11:117.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    García-Borreguero D, Allen RP, Benes H, et al. Augmentation as a treatment complication of restless legs syndrome: concept and management. Mov Disord. 2007;22(Suppl 18):S476–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Castrioto A, Funkiewiez A, Debû B, et al. Iowa gambling task impairment in Parkinson’s disease can be normalised by reduction of dopaminergic medication after subthalamic stimulation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2015;86:186–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Bayard S, Langenier MC, Dauvilliers Y. Decision-making, reward-seeking behaviors and dopamine agonist therapy in restless legs syndrome. Sleep. 2013;36:1501–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Poewe W, Högl B. Akathisia, restless legs and periodic limb movements in sleep in Parkinson’s disease. Neurology. 2004;63:S12–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Peralta CM, Frauscher B, Seppi K, Wolf E, Wenning GK, Högl B, et al. Restless legs syndrome in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2009;24:2076–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Gjerstad MD, Tysnes OB, Larsen JP. Increased risk of leg motor restlessness but not RLS in early Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2011;77:1941–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Puligheddu M, Figorilli M, Aricò D, Raggi A, Marrosu F, Ferri R. Time structure of leg movement activity during sleep in untreated Parkinson disease and effects of dopaminergic treatment. Sleep Med. 2014.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Frau R, Orrù M, Puligheddu M, Gessa GL, Mereu G, Marrosu F, et al. Sleep deprivation disrupts prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex: reversal by antipsychotic drugs. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008;11:947–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Hoenig K, Hochrein A, Quednow BB, Maier W, Wagner M. Impaired prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2005;57:1153–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    de Leeuw AS, Oranje B, van Megen HJGM, Kemner C, Westenberg HGM. Sensory gating and sensorimotor gating in medication-free obsessive-compulsive disorder patients. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2010;25:232–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michela Figorilli
    • 1
  • Patrizia Congiu
    • 1
  • Rosa Lecca
    • 1
  • Gioia Gioi
    • 1
  • Roberto Frau
    • 2
  • Monica Puligheddu
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Sleep Disorders Center, Department of Medical Sciences and Public HealthUniversity of CagliariCagliariItaly
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical Sciences, Division of Neuroscience and Clinical PharmacologyUniversity of CagliariCagliariItaly
  3. 3.Sleep Disorder Centre, Department of Public Health and Clinical and Molecular MedicineUniversity of CagliariCagliariItaly

Personalised recommendations