Clostridioides difficile–Associated Diarrhea: Infection Prevention Unknowns and Evolving Risk Reduction Strategies
Purpose of Review
New controversies in the diagnosis and prevention of Clostridiodes difficile are challenging and at times changing infection control practice at many medical centers.
Molecular epidemiologic studies are changing our understanding of C. difficile and its spectrum of disease. C. difficile as a hospital-acquired infection is likely largely overdiagnosed given overly sensitive molecular testing and widespread colonization of ill or debilitated patients.
Clostridiodes difficile infection continues to challenge infection prevention programs. Shifts in our understanding of the epidemiology of this organism and its spectrum of clinical presentations are changing the approach to prevention efforts. Nevertheless, cleanliness of the healthcare environment and antimicrobial stewardship remain core risk reduction strategies. Other strategies such as screening and isolation are inciting controversy. The optimal infection prevention strategies for C. difficile remain the subject of intense study and debate.
KeywordsClostridiodes difficile C. difficile Antibiotic stewardship Diagnostic stewardship Infection prevention
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Kaila Cooper and Michael Stevens declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Michelle Doll and Gonzalo Bearman have received grants from Molnlycke Healthcare.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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