Purpose of Review
To review latest reports of the food products which might increase blood pressure and therefore might participate in the pathogenesis of hypertension.
Results of clinical study suggest that consumption of high-sodium food leads to transient increase in plasma sodium concentration. This is accompanied by blood pressure increase. Results of both clinical and experimental studies suggest direct vasculotoxic effects of sodium. Increased plasma sodium concentration could mediate its effects on blood pressure by changes in endothelial cell stiffness and glycocalyx integrity. Energy drinks are non-alcoholic beverages with increasing popularity. Clinical, interventional, randomized, placebo controlled, and cross-sectional studies showed that energy drinks may increase arterial blood pressure. Blood pressure increase after exposure for the energy drinks is mainly related to the caffeine content in these drinks. Many case reports were published concerning the clinically significant increase in blood pressure caused by the consumption of liquorice root or food products containing liquorice, such as candies, tea, Pontefract cookies, and chewing gum. Liquorice contains a precursor of glycyrrhetic acid. Glycyrrhetic acid reduces the activity of the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11ß-HSD2) isoenzyme, which leads to activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor by cortisol in the distal convoluted tubule resulting in hypertension, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis. The relationship between chronic alcohol intake and blood pressure is well established on the basis of a diverse body of evidence including animal experiments, epidemiological studies, mendelian randomization studies, and interventional studies. Results of recent studies suggested that binge drinking (i.e., episodic consumption of a very high amount of alcohol beverages) has pronounced hypertensinogenic effects. Recently, it was documented that also low doses of alcohol may increase the risk of cardiovascular complications. Therefore, the amount of alcohol consumption that is safe is zero.
High-salt food products, energy drinks, food products containing liquorice, and alcoholic beverages have hypertensinogenic properties. Patients with hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases should avoid even accidental consumption of these food products.
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Adamczak, M., Wiecek, A. Food Products That May Cause an Increase in Blood Pressure. Curr Hypertens Rep 22, 2 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11906-019-1007-y
- Salt and hypertension
- Cardiovascular disease
- Diet and hypertension
- Blood pressure
- Salt intake
- Alcohol and hypertension