Advertisement

Cost-Effectiveness and Challenges of Implementing Intensive Blood Pressure Goals and Team-Based Care

  • Catherine G. Derington
  • Jordan B. King
  • Kelsey B. Bryant
  • Blake T. McGee
  • Andrew E. Moran
  • William S. Weintraub
  • Brandon K. Bellows
  • Adam P. BressEmail author
Implementation to Increase Blood Pressure Control: What Works? (J Brettler and K Reynolds, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Implementation to Increase Blood Pressure Control: What Works?

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Review the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and implementation challenges of intensive blood pressure (BP) control and team-based care initiatives.

Recent Findings

Intensive BP control is an effective and cost-effective intervention; yet, implementation in routine clinical practice is challenging. Several models of team-based care for hypertension management have been shown to be more effective than usual care to control BP. Additional research is needed to determine the cost-effectiveness of team-based care models relative to one another and as they relate to implementing intensive BP goals.

Summary

As a focus of healthcare shifts to value (i.e., cost, effectiveness, and patient preferences), formal cost-effectiveness analyses will inform which team-based initiatives hold the highest value in different healthcare settings with different populations and needs. Several challenges, including clinical inertia, financial investment, and billing restrictions for pharmacist-delivered services, will need to be addressed in order to improve public health through intensive BP control and team-based care.

Keywords

Cost-effectiveness Patient care team Hypertension Blood pressure Pharmacists Nurses 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Dr. Bress receives support to his institution from Amarin Corporation, Novartis, and Amgen unrelated to the current manuscript. The other authors declare no conflicts of interest relevant to this manuscript.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    Whelton PK. The elusiveness of population-wide high blood pressure control. Annu Rev Public Health. 2015;36:109–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Prospective Studies Collaboration. Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. Lancet. 2002;360:1903–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, Danaei G, Shibuya K, Adair-Rohani H, et al. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2010. Lancet. 2013;380:2224–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Benjamin EJ, Muntner P, Alonso A, Bittencourt MS, Callaway CW, Carson AP, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics - 2019 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2019;139:e56–e528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, Casey DE Jr, Collins KJ, Dennison Himmelfarb C, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on clinical P. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018;71:e127–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fisher NDL, Curfman G. Hypertension—a public health challenge of global proportions. JAMA. 2018;320:17571759.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brush JE, Handberg EM, Biga C, Birtcher KK, Bove AA, Casale PN, et al. 2015 ACC health policy statement on cardiovascular team-based care and the role of advanced practice providers. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015;65:2118–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Best Practices for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Programs: A Guide to Effective Health Care System Interventions and Community Programs Linked to Clinical Services, Promoting Team-Based Care to Improve High Blood Pressure Control [Internet]. Atlanta, GA; 2017. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/dhdsp/pubs/guides/best-practices/team-based-care.htm
  9. 9.
    Berwick DM, Nolan TW, Whittington J. The triple aim: care, health, And Cost. Health Aff. 2008;27:759–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stiefel M, Nolan K. Commentary Measuring the Triple Aim: A Call for Action. Popul Health Manag [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2019 Jun 27];16:219–20. Available from: www.liebertpub.com PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ory MG, Ahn S, Jiang L, Smith ML, Ritter PL, Whitelaw N, et al. Successes of a National Study of the chronic disease self-management program. Med Care. 2013;51:992–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Proia KK, Thota AB, Njie GJ, Finnie RKC, Hopkins DP, Mukhtar Q, et al. Team-based care and improved blood pressure control: a community guide systematic review. Am J Prev Med. 2014;47:86–99.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sofaer S, Firminger K. Patient perceptions of the quality of health services. Annu Rev Public Health. 2005;26:513–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Neumann PJ. Why Don’t Americans use cost-effectiveness analysis? Am J Manag Care. 2004;10:308–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Anderson JL, Heidenreich PA, Barnett PG, Creager MA, Fonarow GC, Gibbons RJ, et al. ACC/AHA statement on cost/value methodology in clinical practice guidelines and performance measures: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on performance measures and task force on practice guidelines. Circulation. 2014;129:2329–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    • Grundy SM, Stone NJ, Bailey AL, Beam C, Birtcher KK, Blumenthal RS, et al. 2018 AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA Guideline on the Management of Blood Cholesterol: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2019;139:e1082–143. 2018 AHA/ACC guidelines on cholesterol management that incorporates cost-effectiveness analysis into recommendations for PCSK9 use. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kazi DS, Moran AE, Coxson PG, Penko J, Ollendorf DA, Pearson SD, et al. Cost-effectiveness of PCSK9 inhibitor therapy in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. JAMA. 2016;316:743–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kazi DS, Penko J, Coxson PG, Moran AE, Ollendorf DA, Tice JA, et al. Updated cost-effectiveness analysis of PCSK9 inhibitors based on the results of the FOURIER trial. JAMA. 2017;318:748–50.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nuckols TK, Aledort JE, Adams J, Lai J, Go M-H, Keesey J, et al. Cost, quality and chronic disease: cost implications of improving blood pressure management among U.S. adults. Health Serv Res. 2011;46:1124–57.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    CDC Diabetes Cost-effectiveness Group. Cost-effectiveness of intensive glycemic control, intensified hypertension control, and serum cholesterol level reduction for type 2 diabetes. JAMA. 2002;287:2542–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Moran AE, Odden MC, Thanataveerat A, Tzong KY, Rasmussen PW, Guzman D, et al. Cost-effectiveness of hypertension therapy according to 2014 guidelines. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:447–55.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bundy JD, Li C, Stuchlik P, Bu X, Kelly TN, Mills KT, et al. Systolic blood pressure reduction and risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. JAMA Cardiol. 2017;2:775–81.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ettehad D, Emdin CA, Kiran A, Anderson SG, Callender T, Emberson J, et al. Blood pressure lowering for prevention of cardiovascular disease and death: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2016;387:957–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bangalore S, Toklu B, Gianos E, Schwartzbard A, Weintraub H, Ogedegbe G, et al. Optimal systolic blood pressure target after SPRINT: insights from a network meta-analysis of randomized trials. Am J Med. 2017;130:707–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wright JT Jr, Williamson J, Whelton P, Snyder J, Sink K, Roccoo M, et al. A randomized trial of intensive versus standard blood-pressure control. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:2103–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bress AP, Kramer H, Khatib R, Beddhu S, Cheung AK, Hess R, et al. Potential deaths averted and serious adverse events incurred from adoption of the SPRINT intensive blood pressure regimen in the United States: projections from NHANES. Circulation. 2017;135:1617–28.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cushman WC, Evans GW, Byington RP, Goff DC, Grimm RH, Cutler JA, et al. Effects of intensive blood-pressure control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:1575–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Margolis KL, O’Connor PJ, Morgan TM, Buse JB, Cohen RM, Cushman WC, et al. Outcomes of combined cardiovascular risk factor management strategies in type 2 diabetes: the ACCORD randomized trial. Diabetes Care. 2014;37:1721–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bress AP, King JB, Kreider KE, Beddhu S, Simmons DL, Cheung AK, et al. Effect of intensive versus standard blood pressure treatment according to baseline Prediabetes status: a post hoc analysis of a randomized trial. Diabetes Care. 2017;40:1401–8.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Moise N, Huang C, Rodgers A, Kohli-Lynch Ciaran N, Tzong KY, Coxson PG, et al. Comparative cost-effectiveness of conservative or intensive blood pressure treatment guidelines in adults aged 35-74 years: the cardiovascular disease policy model. Hypertension. 2016;68:88–96.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Richman IB, Fairley M, Jørgensen ME, Schuler A, Owens DK, Goldhaber-Fiebert JD. Cost-effectiveness of intensive blood pressure management. JAMA Cardiol. 2016;1:872–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lee H-Y, Jun SY, Choi J-W, Kim TY. Cost Effectiveness of Intensive Blood-Pressure Control [abstract LBPS 03–01]. J Hypertens. 2016;34:e524.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    •• Bress AP, Bellows BK, King JB, Hess R, Beddhu S, Zhang Z, et al. Cost-effectiveness of intensive versus standard blood-pressure control. N Engl J Med. 2017;377:745–55. Cost-effectiveness analysis of intensive versus standard blood pressure control performed by the SPRINT Research Group. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Neumann PJ, Cohen JT, Weinstein MC. Updating cost-effectiveness - the curious resilience of the $50,000-per-QALY threshold. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:796–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Yoon SS, Gu Q, Nwankwo T, Wright JD, Hong Y, Burt V. Trends in blood pressure among adults with hypertension: United States, 2003 to 2012. Hypertension. 2015;65:54–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Agarwal R. Implications of blood pressure measurement technique for implementation of systolic blood pressure intervention trial (SPRINT). J Am Heart Assoc. 2017;6:e004536.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Johnson KC, Whelton PK, Cushman WC, Cutler JA, Evans GW, Snyder JK, et al. Blood pressure measurement in SPRINT (systolic blood pressure intervention trial) SPRINT trial. Hypertension. 2018;71:848–587.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Drawz PE, Ix JH. BP measurement in clinical practice: time to SPRINT to guideline-recommended protocols. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2018;29:383–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Muntner P, Einhorn PT, Cushman WC, Whelton PK, Bello NA, Drawz PE, et al. Blood pressure assessment in adults in clinical practice and clinic-based research: JACC scientific expert panel. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019;73:317–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Forman DE, Maurer MS, Boyd C, Brindis R, Salive ME, Mcfarland Horne F, et al. Multimorbidity in older adults with cardiovascular disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018;71:2149–61.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Derington CG, Gums TH, Bress AP, Herrick JS, Greene TH, Moran AE, Weintraub WS, Kronish IM, Morisky DE, Trinkley KE, Saseen JJ, Reynolds K, Bates JT, Berlowitz DR, Chang TI, Chonchol M, Cushman WC, Foy CG, Herring CT, Katz LA, Krousel-Wood M, Pajewski NM, Tamariz L, King JB. Association of total medication burden with intensive and standard blood pressure control and clinical outcomes: a secondary analysis of the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT). Hypertension July 2019;74(1):267-275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bangalore S, Kamalakkannan G, Parkar S, Messerli FH. Fixed-dose combinations improve medication compliance: a meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2007;120:713–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Coleman CI, Limone B, Sobieraj DM, Lee S, Roberts MS, Kaur R, et al. Dosing frequency and medication adherence in chronic disease. J Manag Care Pharm. 2012;18:527–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lebeau J-P, Cadwallader J-S, Aubin-Auger I, Mercier A, Pasquet T, Rusch E, et al. The concept and definition of therapeutic inertia in hypertension in primary care: a qualitative systematic review. BMC Fam Pract. 2014;15:130.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Phillips LS, Branch WT, Cook CB, Doyle JP, El-Kebbi IM, Gallina DL, et al. Clinical Inertia. Ann Intern Med. 2001;135:825–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bellows BK, Ruiz-Negrón N, Bibbins-Domingo K, King JB, Pletcher MJ, Moran AE, et al. Clinic-based strategies to reach United States million hearts 2022 blood pressure control goals. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2019;12:e005624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    O’Connor PJ, Sperl-Hillen JM, Johnson PE, Rush WA, Biltz G. Clinical inertia and outpatient medical errors. Volume 2: Henriksen K, battles JB, Marks ES, Lewin DI, editors. Rockville: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2005.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jaffe MG, Lee GA, Young JD, Sidney S, Go AS. Improved blood pressure control associated with a large-scale hypertension program. JAMA. 2013;310:699–705.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Fletcher RD, Amdur RL, Kolodner R, McManus C, Jones R, Faselis C, et al. Blood pressure control among US veterans: a large multiyear analysis of blood pressure data from the veterans administration health data repository. Circulation. 2012;125:2462–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kennelty KA, Polgreen LA, Carter BL. Team-based care with pharmacists to improve blood pressure: a review of recent literature. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2018;20:1.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Carter BL, Bosworth HB, Green BB. The hypertension team: the role of the pharmacist, nurse and teamwork in hypertension therapy. J Clin Hypertens. 2012;14:51–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    •• Mills KT, Obst KM, Shen W, Molina S, Zhang H-J, He H, et al. Comparative effectiveness of implementation strategies for blood pressure control in hypertensive patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2018;168:110–20. Systematic review and meta-analysis that describes the effectiveness of various strategies for improving hypertension management. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Dunn SP, Birtcher KK, Beavers CJ, Baker WL, Brouse SD, Page RL II, et al. The role of the clinical pharmacist in the Care of Patients with cardiovascular disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015;66:2129–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Carter BL, Coffey CS, Ardery G, Uribe L, Ecklund D, James P, et al. Cluster-randomized trial of a physician/pharmacist collaborative model to improve blood pressure control. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2015;8:235–43.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Margolis KL, Asche SE, Bergdall AR, Dehmer SP, Groen SE, Kadrmas HM, et al. Effect of home blood pressure Telemonitoring and pharmacist management on blood pressure control: the HyperLink cluster randomized trial. JAMA. 2013;310:46–56.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    •• Victor RG, Lynch K, Li N, Blyler C, Muhammad E, Handler J, et al. A cluster-randomized trial of blood-pressure reduction in black barbershops. N Engl J Med. 2018;378:1291–301. Cluster-randomized trial of a pharmacist-driven blood pressure management service in black barbershops. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    • Margolis KL, Asche SE, Dehmer SP, Bergdall AR, Green BB, Sperl-Hillen JM, et al. Long-term Outcomes of the Effects of Home Blood Pressure Telemonitoring and Pharmacist Management on Blood Pressure Among Adults With Uncontrolled Hypertension: Follow-up of a Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Netw Open. 2018;1:e181617. 24-month outcomes related to pharmacist-driven telehealth blood pressure management service. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Victor RG, Blyler CA, Li N, Lynch K, Moy NB, Rashid M, et al. Sustainability of blood pressure reduction in black barbershops. Circulation. 2019;139:10–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Asche SE, O’Connor PJ, Dehmer SP, Green BB, Bergdall AR, Maciosek MV, et al. Patient characteristics associated with greater blood pressure control in a randomized trial of home blood pressure telemonitoring and pharmacist management. J Am Soc Hypertens. 2016;10:873–80.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Beran M, Asche SE, Bergdall AR, Crabtree B, Green BB, Groen SE, et al. Key components of success in a randomized trial of blood pressure telemonitoring with medication therapy management pharmacists. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2018;58:614–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Dennison Himmelfarb CR, Commodore-Mensah Y, Hill MN. Expanding the role of nurses to improve hypertension care and control globally. Ann Glob Health. 2016;82:243–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Shaw RJ, McDuffie JR, Hendrix CC, Edie A, Lindsey-Davis L, Nagi A, et al. Effects of nurse-managed protocols in the outpatient management of adults with chronic conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2014;161:113–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Clark CE, Smith LFP, Taylor RS, Campbell JL. Nurse led interventions to improve control of blood pressure in people with hypertension: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2010;341:c3995.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Clark CE, Smith LFP, Taylor RS, Campbell JL. Nurse-led interventions used to improve control of high blood pressure in people with diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabet Med. 2011;28:250–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Polgreen LA, Han J, Carter BL, Ardery GP, Coffey CS, Chrischilles EA, et al. Cost effectiveness of a physician-pharmacist collaboration intervention to improve blood pressure control. Hypertension. 2015;66:1145–51.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Dehmer SP, Maciosek MV, Trower NK, Asche SE, Bergdall AR, Nyboer RA, et al. Economic evaluation of the home blood pressure telemonitoring and pharmacist case management to control hypertension (Hyperlink) trial. J Am Coll Clin Pharm. 2018;1:21–30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kulchaitanaroaj P, Brooks JM, Ardery G, Newman D, Carter BL. Incremental costs associated with physician and pharmacist collaboration to improve blood pressure control. Pharmacotherapy. 2012;32:772–80.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Carter BL, Bergus GR, Dawson JD, Farris KB, Doucette WR, Chrischilles EA, et al. A cluster-randomized trial to evaluate physician/pharmacist collaboration to improve blood pressure control. J Clin Hypertens. 2008;10:260–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Carter BL, Rogers M, Daly J, Zheng S, James PA. The potency of team-based care interventions for hypertension. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169:1748–55.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kulchaitanaroaj P, Brooks JM, Chaiyakunapruk N, Goedken AM, Chrischilles EA, Carter BL. Cost-utility analysis of physician-pharmacist collaborative intervention for treating hypertension compared with usual care. J Hypertens. 2017;35:178–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Datta SK, Oddone EZ, Olsen MK, Orr M, McCant F, Gentry P, et al. Economic analysis of a tailored behavioral intervention to improve blood pressure control for primary care patients. Am Heart J. 2010;160:257–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Bosworth HB, Olsen MK, Dudley T, Orr M, Goldstein MK, Datta SK, et al. Patient education and provider decision support to control blood pressure in primary care: a cluster randomized trial. Am Heart J. 2009;157:450–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Allen JK, Dennison Himmelfarb CR, Szanton SL, Hopkins J, Frick KD. Cost-effectiveness of nurse practitioner/community health worker care to reduce cardiovascular health disparities. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2014;29:308–14.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Allen JK, Dennison-Himmelfarb CR, Szanton SL, Bone L, Hill MN, Levine DM, et al. Community outreach and cardiovascular health (COACH) trial: a randomized, controlled trial of nurse practitioner/community health worker cardiovascular disease risk reduction in Urban Community health centers. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2011;4:595–602.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Wang V, Smith VA, Bosworth HB, Oddone EZ, Olsen MK, McCant F, et al. Economic evaluation of telephone self-management interventions for blood pressure control. Am Heart J. 2012;163:980–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Bosworth HB, Powers BJ, Olsen MK, McCant F, Grubber J, Smith V, et al. Home blood pressure management and improved blood pressure control: results from a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 2011;171:1173–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hollenbeak CS, Weiner MG, Turner BJ. Cost-effectiveness of a peer and practice staff support intervention. Am J Manag Care. 2014;20:253–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    •• Zhang D, Wang G, Joo H. A systematic review of economic evidence on community hypertension interventions. Am J Prev Med. 2017;53:S121–30. This systematic review describes the cost-effectiveness evidence on various team-based care strategies for hypertension management in the United States and Internationally. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Jacob V, Chattopadhyay SK, Thota AB, Proia KK, Njie G, Hopkins DP, et al. Economics of team-based Care in Controlling Blood Pressure: a community guide systematic review. Am J Prev Med. 2015;49:772–83.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Carter BL, Ardery G, Dawson JD, James PA, Bergus GR, Doucette WR, et al. Physician/pharmacist collaboration to improve blood pressure control. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169:1996–2002.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    •• Overwyk KJ, Dehmer SP, Roy K, Maciosek MV, Hong Y, Baker-goering MM, et al. Modeling the health and budgetary impacts of a team-based hypertension care intervention that includes pharmacists. Med Care. 2019;00:1–8. Economic analysis evaluating cost thresholds for pharmacist-delivered hypertension service to be budget-neutral in Medicare populations. Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Simpson SH, Lier DA, Majumdar SR, Tsuyuki RT, Lewanczuk RZ, Spooner R, et al. Cost-effectiveness analysis of adding pharmacists to primary care teams to reduce cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes: results from a randomized controlled trial. Diabet Med. 2015;32:899–906.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Marra C, Johnston K, Santschi V, Tsuyuki RT. Cost-effectiveness of pharmacist care for managing hypertension in Canada. Can Pharm J. 2017;150:184–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    van der Laan DM, Elders PJM, Boons CCLM, Nijpels G, van Dijk L, Hugtenburg JG. Effectiveness of a Patient-Tailored, Pharmacist-Led Intervention Program to Enhance Adherence to Antihypertensive Medication: The CATI Study. Front Pharmacol. 2018;9:1057.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Bosmans JE, van der Laan DM, Yang Y, Elders PJM, Boons CCLM, Nijpels G, et al. The Cost-Effectiveness of an Intervention Program to Enhance Adherence to Antihypertensive Medication in Comparison With Usual Care in Community Pharmacies. Front Pharmacol. 2019;10:210.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Bauer JC. Nurse practitioners as an underutilized resource for health reform: evidence-based demonstrations of cost-effectiveness. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2010;22:228–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Gadbois EA, Miller EA, Tyler D, Intrator O. Trends in state regulation of nurse practitioners and physician assistants, 2001 to 2010. Med Care Res Rev. 2015;72:200–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Nguyen E, Holmes JT. Pharmacist-provided services: barriers to demonstrating value. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2019;59:117–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    American Pharmacists Association. The pursuit of provider status [Internet]. Washington, D.C.; 2013. Available from: www.ssa.gov/OP_Home/
  90. 90.
    Markit IHS. 2017 update the complexities of physician supply and demand: projections from 2015 to 2030 [internet]: Washington; 2017. Available from: https://aamc-black.global.ssl.fastly.net/production/media/filer_public/a5/c3/a5c3d565-14ec-48fb-974b-99fafaeecb00/aamc_projections_update_2017.pdf
  91. 91.
    Bitton A, Ratcliffe HL, Veillard JH, Kress DH, Barkley S, Kimball M, et al. Primary health care as a Foundation for Strengthening Health Systems in low- and middle-income countries. J Gen Intern Med. 2016;32:566–71.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Druetz T. Integrated primary health care in low-and middle-income countries: a double challenge. BMC Med Ethics. 2018;19:48.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Goodyear-Smith F, Bazemore A, Coffman M, Fortier R, Howe A, Kidd M, et al. Primary care research priorities in low- and middle- income countries. Ann Fam Med. 2019;17:31–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Lall D, Engel N, Devadasan N, Horstman K, Criel B. Models of care for chronic conditions in low/middle-income countries: a “best fit” framework synthesis. BMJ Glob Health. 2018;3:e001077.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    McManus RJ, Mant J, Franssen M, Nickless A, Schwartz C, Hodgkinson J, et al. Efficacy of self-monitored blood pressure, with or without telemonitoring, for titration of antihypertensive medication (TASMINH4): an unmasked randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2018;391:949–59.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Monahan M, Jowett S, Nickless A, Franssen M, Grant S, Greenfield S, et al. Cost-effectiveness of telemonitoring and self-monitoring of blood pressure for antihypertensive titration in primary care (TASMINH4). Hypertension. 2019;73:1231–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Tucker KL, Sheppard JP, Stevens R, Bosworth HB, Bove A, Bray EP, et al. Self-monitoring of blood pressure in hypertension: a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis. PLoS Med. 2017;14:e1002389.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Abegaz TM, Shehab A, Gebreyohannes EA, Bhagavathula AS, Elnour AA. Nonadherence to antihypertensive drugs: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e5641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Burnier M, Egan BM. Adherence in hypertension: a review of prevalence, risk factors, impact, and management. Circ Res. 2019;124:1124–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    King DE, Mainous AG III, Carnemolla M, Everett CJ. Adherence to healthy lifestyle habits in US adults, 1988-2006. Am J Med. 2009;122:528–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    • Langford AT, Williams SK, Applegate M, Ogedegbe O, Braithwaite RS. Partnerships to Improve Shared Decision Making for Patients with Hypertension – Health Equity Implications. Ethn Dis. 2019;29:97–102. This paper, in conjunction with Johnson et al, describes the importance of implementing shared decision making to maximize hypertension care and reduce health disparities. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    • Johnson RA, Huntley A, Hughes RA, Cramer H, Turner KM, Perkins B, et al. Interventions to support shared decision making for hypertension: a systematic review of controlled studies. Health Expect. 2018;21:1191–207. This systematic review describes the current literature on strategies to improve shared decision making with patients in hypertension care. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Catherine G. Derington
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jordan B. King
    • 3
    • 4
  • Kelsey B. Bryant
    • 5
  • Blake T. McGee
    • 6
  • Andrew E. Moran
    • 5
  • William S. Weintraub
    • 7
  • Brandon K. Bellows
    • 5
  • Adam P. Bress
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of PharmacyKaiser Permanente ColoradoAuroraUSA
  2. 2.Department of Clinical PharmacyUniversity of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical SciencesAuroraUSA
  3. 3.Department of Population Health Sciences, School of MedicineUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA
  4. 4.Institute for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente ColoradoAuroraUSA
  5. 5.Division of General Medicine, Department of MedicineColumbia University Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  6. 6.Byrdine F. Lewis College of Nursing & Health ProfessionsGeorgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA
  7. 7.MedStar Washington Hospital CenterWashingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations