Four-Limb Blood Pressure Measurement with an Oscillometric Device: a Tool for Diagnosing Peripheral Vascular Disease

  • Songtao Liu
  • Ping Li
  • Hai SuEmail author
Device-Based Approaches for Hypertension (Markus Schlaich, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Device-Based Approaches for Hypertension


Purpose of Review

Traditionally, the term peripheral vascular disease (PAD) is restricted to the occlusive arterial disease in the leg, but now, the connotation of PAD is more widespread as it encompasses all extracoronary and extracerebral vascular disease. The incidence of PAD is increasing worldwide; therefore, it is necessary to diagnose PAD at an early stage.

Recent Findings

Oscillometric BP device is widely used for four-limb measurement in clinical practice and provides several parameters for evaluating inter-limb BP difference, such as ankle-brachial index (OS-ABI), inter-arm BP differences (IAD), and inter-ankle BP difference (IAND). Using angiographic results as reference, the ABI, IAD, and IAND from an oscillometric BP device have been demonstrated having high accuracy for diagnosis of PAD. Meanwhile, combination of these parameters could further improve the accuracy of PAD, including the occlusive artery disease in the arm, leg, and aorta. For example, some patients with severe PAD in the leg have normal ABI; in this situation, an increased sIAND could confirm the diagnosis of PAD in the leg.


Because ABI, IAD, and IAND from inter-limb oscillometric BP measurement can also predict adverse prognosis, we encourage the use of an oscillometric device to measure four-limb BP and to evaluate the inter-limb BP difference.


Peripheral vascular disease (PAD) Oscillometric BP device ABI IAD IAND 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest relevant to this manuscript.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cardiovascular Medicinethe Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang UniversityNanchangChina

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