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Sex-Specific Contributions of Endothelin to Hypertension

  • Eman Y. Gohar
  • David M. Pollock
Preeclampsia (V Garovic, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Preeclampsia

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Men and women differ in the prevalence, pathophysiology and control rate of hypertension in an age-dependent manner. The renal endothelin system plays a central role in sex differences in blood pressure regulation by control of sodium excretion and vascular function. Improving our understanding of the sex differences in the endothelin system, especially in regard to blood pressure regulation and sodium homeostasis, will fill a significant gap in our knowledge and may identify sex-specific therapeutic targets for management of hypertension.

Recent Findings

The current review will highlight evidence for the potential role for endothelin system in the pathophysiology of hypertension within three female populations: (i) postmenopausal women, (ii) women suffering from preeclampsia, or (iii) pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Summary

Clinical trials that specifically address cardiovascular and renal diseases in females under different hormonal status are limited. Studies of the modulatory role of gonadal hormones and sex-specific mechanisms on critically important systems involved, such as endothelin, are needed to establish new clinical practice guidelines based on systematic evidence.

Keywords

Sex-specific Endothelin Postmenopausal Preeclampsia Pulmonary hypertension 

Notes

Funding

This work was supported by grants from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (P01 HL0699499 and P01 HL136267), an American Heart Association Strategically Focused Research Network Grant on Hypertension, and a UAB School of Medicine AMC21 Multi-Investigator Planning Grant.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest relevant to this manuscript.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Section of Cardio-Renal Physiology & Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Department of MedicineUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of PharmacyAlexandria UniversityAlexandriaEgypt

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