IMiDs New and Old

  • Samuel Yamshon
  • Jia RuanEmail author
B-cell NHL, T-cell NHL, and Hodgkin Lymphoma (J Amengual, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on B-cell NHL, T-cell NHL, and Hodgkin Lymphoma


Purpose of Review

IMiDs are a class of biologic agents with immunomodulatory, anti-angiogenic, and direct anti-cancer activities. This review summarizes current data on clinical development and application of IMiDs in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes, focusing primarily on lenalidomide, with additional discussion on managing common side effects.

Recent Findings

Improved upon the prototype thalidomide, the second-generation compound lenalidomide has enhanced immunological and anti-cancer properties with fewer side effects, while next-generation small molecule cereblon/E3 ubiquitin ligase modulator CC-122 is in early clinical studies. Lenalidomide is FDA-approved for treatment of relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma as a single agent, as well as in combination with rituximab for R/R follicular lymphoma and marginal zone lymphoma. In addition, numerous clinical trials of lenalidomide, as single agent, in combination with anti-CD20 antibodies, or in combination with chemoimmunotherapy regimens, have shown promise in aggressive and indolent NHL in both the upfront and relapsed/refractory setting.


As clinical trials with lenalidomide continue to find success in both indolent and aggressive lymphomas, IMiDs are poised to be important building blocks for combinatorial strategies with antibodies, chemotherapy, novel target agents, and emerging immunotherapy involving immune checkpoint inhibitors and chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy. Delineation of treatment-specific and disease-specific biomarkers is an important research objective to gain insight into potential mechanisms of action, and to guide future clinical development.


Immunomodulation Lymphoma Lenalidomide Thalidomide Avadomide 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Samuel Yamshon declares that he has no conflict of interest. Jia Ruan reports grants and personal fees from Celgene, grants from Pharmacyclics, grants and personal fees from AstraZeneca, grants from Seattle Genetics, personal fees from Juno Therapeutics, and personal fees from Kite Pharma.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Meyer Cancer CenterWeill Cornell Medicine and New York Presbyterian HospitalNew YorkUSA

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