Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports

, Volume 14, Issue 3, pp 179–186 | Cite as

Disparities in Survival and Health Outcomes in Childhood Leukemia

  • Lena E. WinestoneEmail author
  • Richard Aplenc
Health Economics (N Khera, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Health Economics


Purpose of Review

The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature on pediatric leukemia disparities with attention to not only racial and ethnic disparities, but also socioeconomic disparities. We focus on disparities in survival as well as other health-related outcomes, including end-of-life care and late effects.

Recent Findings

While progress has been made in decreasing some disparities, most notably in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia, disparities along many axes persist. Proposed etiologies include differences in the genomic alterations of the leukemia itself to differences in access to care that operate through socioeconomic status, insurance, and geographic location.


As approaches to therapy become increasingly technical and complex, particular attention to the equitable distribution of these personalized therapeutic interventions is essential. Moving beyond simple descriptive studies to focus on mechanisms of existing disparities will allow for design of interventions to reduce or eliminate disparities in pediatric leukemia.


Disparities Leukemia Mortality Survivorship Race/ethnicity 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Lena E. Winestone and Richard Aplenc declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Allergy, Immunology, and BMT, Department of PediatricsUniversity of California San Francisco (UCSF) Benioff Children’s HospitalSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer CenterUCSFSan FranciscoUSA
  3. 3.Division of OncologyThe Children’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA
  4. 4.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Pennsylvania School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA

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