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Heart Failure With Mid-range Ejection Fraction

  • Pratyaksh K. Srivastava
  • Jeffrey J. Hsu
  • Boback Ziaeian
  • Gregg C. FonarowEmail author
Clinical Heart Failure (T Meyer, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Clinical Heart Failure
  2. Topical Collection on Clinical Heart Failure

Abstract

Purpose of Review

To describe the epidemiology, pathophysiology, management, and prognosis of patients with heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF).

Recent Findings

In 2013, The American Heart Association (AHA)/American College of Cardiology (ACC) assigned an ejection fraction (EF) range to heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF, EF ≤ 40%) and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF, EF ≥50%). This classification created a “gray zone” of patients with EFs between 41% and 49% that ultimately came to be known as heart failure with borderline or mid-range ejection fraction. HFmrEF patients represent a group with heterogeneous clinical characteristics that at times resembles HFrEF, at others HFpEF, and at others still a unique phenotype altogether. No randomized controlled trials exist in those with HFmrEF, though HFrEF and HFpEF studies that include overlap suggest some potential benefit of beta blockers, angiotensin receptor blockers, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, and angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors. Mortality rates among the HFmrEF population are significant, and are similar to those in patients with HFrEF and HFpEF.

Summary

HFmrEF is a complex disorder that remains poorly understood. Future research is needed to better elucidate the pathophysiology, management, and prognosis of this condition.

Keywords

Heart failure Mid-range ejection fraction 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

PKS and JJH have no conflicts of interest.

BZ: Supported by the American Heart Association SDG 17SDG33630113 and the NIH/National Center for Advancing Translational Science (NCATS) UCLA CTSI Grant Number KL2TR001882. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH.

GCF: Consulting for Abbott, Amgen, CHF Solutions, Janssen, Medtronic, Merck, and Novartis.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with humans or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pratyaksh K. Srivastava
    • 1
  • Jeffrey J. Hsu
    • 1
  • Boback Ziaeian
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gregg C. Fonarow
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of CardiologyDavid Geffen School of Medicine at UCLALos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Division of CardiologyVeterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare SystemLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Ahmanson-UCLA Cardiomyopathy CenterRonald Reagan UCLA Medical CenterLos AngelesUSA

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