The Epidemiology of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the USA

  • Hyun-seok Kim
  • Hashem B. El-SeragEmail author
GI Oncology (R Bresalier, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on GI Oncology


Purpose of Review

To discuss current knowledge and recent findings regarding the epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the USA.

Recent Finding

The US incidence rate of HCC is increasing, although the pace may have somewhat slowed since 2010. In 2012, incidence rates of HCC in Hispanics surpassed those of Asians. The recent epidemiological changes in major risk factors for HCC include increasing hepatitis C virus post-sustained virologic response, suppressed hepatitis B virus on nucleoside analogues, and alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has the greatest proportion of the burden of the main risk factors for HCC in the USA, followed by alcoholic liver disease, and hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus infections.


This review focuses on current knowledge regarding the recent epidemiological trends in HCC, with an emphasis on future directions.


Hepatocellular carcinoma Epidemiology Prevention 


Funding Information

NIH NCI (R01CA190776) and NIDDK Grants (P30DK056338) to Dr. El-Serag.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance

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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. Government work and not under copyright protection in the US; foreign copyright protection may apply 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Section of Gastroenterology and HepatologyBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA
  2. 2.U.S. Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical CenterHoustonUSA

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