New Approaches to Diagnosis and Treatment of Functional Dyspepsia
Purpose of Review
The purpose of this article is to review the recent literature and discuss the new approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of functional dyspepsia (FD).
According to the recent American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) and Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG) guideline for dyspepsia, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication is recommended as a first treatment option, and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), tricyclic antidepressants, and prokinetics are listed as second-line therapy. On the other hand, in the Japanese guideline for FD, PPIs and prokinetics are recommended as the first-line treatment. In Japan, acotiamide, a recently launched prokinetic, showed significant efficacy in several clinical trials performed either in Japan or Europe. Regarding non-pharmacological treatment, recent topics include acupuncture, electrical stimulation, gastric peroral endoscopic myotomy, and meal and lifestyle modification. These treatments have provided significant efficacy, which provides some insights into the main pathophysiology of this disease.
Although FD is common among functional gastrointestinal disorders, it is not easy to relieve the dyspeptic symptoms of FD patients. Combinations of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options are expected.
KeywordsFunctional dyspepsia (FD) Diagnosis Treatment Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) Acotiamide Tricyclic antidepressant (TCA)
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the author.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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