Advertisement

Advanced Imaging for Barrett’s Esophagus and Early Neoplasia: Surface and Subsurface Imaging for Diagnosis and Management

  • Mansoureh Mkarimi
  • Hiroshi Mashimo
Esophagus (J Clarke and N Ahuja, Section Editors)
  • 116 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Esophagus

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Esophageal adenocarcinoma bears one of the fastest rising incidence of any cancers and generally arises in the setting of gastroesophageal reflux and Barrett’s esophagus. However, early detection of neoplasia can be challenging since most patients are asymptomatic until they progress to more advanced and less curable stages, and early dysplastic lesions can be small, multifocal, and difficult to detect. Clearly, new imaging tools are needed in light of sampling error associated with random biopsies, the current standard of practice.

Recent Findings

Advances in endoscopic imaging including virtual chromoendoscopy, confocal laser endomicroscopy, and subsurface imaging with optical coherence tomography have ushered in a new era for detecting subtle neoplastic lesions. Moreover, in light of esophagus-sparing treatments for neoplastic lesions, such tools are likely to guide ablation and follow-up management.

Summary

While there is no ideal single imaging modality to facilitate improved detection, staging, ablation, and follow-up of patients with dysplastic Barrett’s esophagus, new advances in available technology, the potential for multimodal imaging, and the use of computer-aided diagnosis and biomarkers all hold great promise for improving detection and treatment.

Keywords

Endoscopic imaging Chromoendoscopy Confocal laser endomicroscopy Optical coherence tomography Barrett’s esophagus Esophageal adenocarcinoma 

Abbreviations

AFI

autofluorescence imaging

APC

argon plasma coagulation

a/LCI

angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry

BE

Barrett’s esophagus

BING

Barrett’s International NBI Group

BLI

blue laser imaging

CAD

computer-aided diagnosis

CE

chromoendoscopy

CLE

confocal laser endomicroscopy

CT

computed tomography

eCLE

endoscopic CLE

EAC

esophageal adenocarcinoma

EMR

endoscopic mucosal resection

EPSS

endoscopic polarized scanning spectroscopy

ESD

endoscopic submucosal dissection

ESS

elastic-scattering spectroscopy

ETMI

endoscopic trimodal imaging

EUS

endoscopic ultrasound

FICE

flexible spectral imaging color enhancement

FLOT

fluorescence laminar optical tomography

FNA

fine needle aspiration

GERD

gastroesophageal reflux disease

HGD

high-grade dysplasia

LGD

low-grade dysplasia

LSS

light-scattering spectroscopy

MB

methylene blue

MEMS

microelectromechanical systems

NBI

narrow-band imaging

NPV

negative predictive value

OCT

optical coherence tomography

OCT-A

optical coherence tomography and angiography

OCT-TC

optical coherence tomography tethered capsule

OCT-SI

optical coherence tomography scoring index

PAT

photoacoustic tomography

pCLE

probe-based confocal laser endoscopy

PET

positron emission tomography

PIVI

Preservation and Incorporation of Valuable Endoscopic Innovation

PPV

positive predictive value

PS-OCT

polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

RFA

radiofrequency ablation

VLE

volumetric laser endomicroscopy

TB

targeted biopsies

VLE

volumetric laser endomicroscopy

VLE-DA

volumetric laser endomicroscopy diagnostic algorithm

WATS

wide-area transepithelial sampling

WLE

white light endoscopy

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Mansoureh Mkarimi declares no conflict of interest. Hiroshi Mashimo reports grants from Ninepoint Medical, outside the submitted work, and has a patent pending (No. 61/987,80 for a novel catheter design, “Scanning Optical Probe,” that is being used with the OCT technology in this study which is ongoing).

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance

  1. 1.
    Castell DO, Katzka DA. Barrett’s esophagus: continuing questions and controversy. Gastrointest Endosc. 1999;49:S5–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kuipers EJ. Barrett esophagus and life expectancy: implications for screening? Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 2011;7:689–91.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shaheen NJ, Falk GW, Iyer PG, et al. ACG clinical guideline: diagnosis and management of Barrett’s esophagus. Am J Gastroenterol. 2016;111:30–50 quiz 51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mashimo H. Subsquamous intestinal metaplasia after ablation of Barrett’s esophagus: frequency and importance. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2013;29:454–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Visrodia K, Singh S, Krishnamoorthi R, et al. Magnitude of missed esophageal adenocarcinoma after Barrett’s esophagus diagnosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Gastroenterology. 2016;150:599–607 e7 quiz e14–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Corley DA, Mehtani K, Quesenberry C, et al. Impact of endoscopic surveillance on mortality from Barrett’s esophagus-associated esophageal adenocarcinomas. Gastroenterology. 2013;145:312–9 e1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Committee AT, Wong Kee Song LM, Adler DG, et al. Chromoendoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc. 2007;66:639–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Connor MJ, Sharma P. Chromoendoscopy and magnification endoscopy for diagnosing esophageal cancer and dysplasia. Thorac Surg Clin. 2004;14:87–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Breyer HP, Silva De Barros SG, Maguilnik I, et al. Does methylene blue detect intestinal metaplasia in Barrett’s esophagus? Gastrointest Endosc. 2003;57:505–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Trivedi PJ, Braden B. Indications, stains and techniques in chromoendoscopy. QJM. 2013;106:117–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yagi K, Nakamura A, Sekine A. Accuracy of magnifying endoscopy with methylene blue in the diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia and short-segment Barrett’s esophagus in Japanese patients without Helicobacter pylori infection. Gastrointest Endosc. 2003;58:189–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sturmey RG, Wild CP, Hardie LJ. Removal of red light minimizes methylene blue-stimulated DNA damage in oesophageal cells: implications for chromoendoscopy. Mutagenesis. 2009;24:253–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ngamruengphong S, Sharma VK, Das A. Diagnostic yield of methylene blue chromoendoscopy for detecting specialized intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus: a meta-analysis. Gastrointest Endosc. 2009;69:1021–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lambert R, Rey JF, Sankaranarayanan R. Magnification and chromoscopy with the acetic acid test. Endoscopy. 2003;35:437–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    ASGE Technology Committee, Manfredi MA, Abu Dayyeh BK, et al. Electronic chromoendoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc. 2015;81:249–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kuznetsov K, Lambert R, Rey JF. Narrow-band imaging: potential and limitations. Endoscopy. 2006;38:76–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sharma P, Hawes RH, Bansal A, et al. Standard endoscopy with random biopsies versus narrow band imaging targeted biopsies in Barrett’s oesophagus: a prospective, international, randomised controlled trial. Gut. 2013;62:15–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    ASGE Technology C, Song LM, Adler DG, et al. Narrow band imaging and multiband imaging. Gastrointest Endosc. 2008;67:581–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sharma P, Bergman JJ, Goda K, et al. Development and validation of a classification system to identify high-grade dysplasia and esophageal adenocarcinoma in Barrett’s esophagus using narrow-band imaging. Gastroenterology. 2016;150:591–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nogales O, Caballero-Marcos A, Clemente-Sanchez A, et al. Usefulness of non-magnifying narrow band imaging in EVIS EXERA III video systems and high-definition endoscopes to diagnose dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using the Barrett International NBI Group (BING) classification. Dig Dis Sci. 2017;62:2840–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Osawa H, Yamamoto H. Present and future status of flexible spectral imaging color enhancement and blue laser imaging technology. Dig Endosc. 2014;26(Suppl 1):105–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kiesslich R, Jung M. Magnification endoscopy: does it improve mucosal surface analysis for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal neoplasias? Endoscopy. 2002;34:819–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sharma P, Weston AP, Topalovski M, et al. Magnification chromoendoscopy for the detection of intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia in Barrett’s oesophagus. Gut. 2003;52:24–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kumagai Y, Takubo K, Kawada K, et al. A newly developed continuous zoom-focus endocytoscope. Endoscopy. 2017;49:176–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kumagai Y, Monma K, Kawada K. Magnifying chromoendoscopy of the esophagus: in-vivo pathological diagnosis using an endocytoscopy system. Endoscopy. 2004;36:590–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Committee AT, Song LM, Banerjee S, et al. Autofluorescence imaging. Gastrointest Endosc. 2011;73:647–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    di Pietro M, Boerwinkel DF, Shariff MK, et al. The combination of autofluorescence endoscopy and molecular biomarkers is a novel diagnostic tool for dysplasia in Barrett’s oesophagus. Gut. 2015;64:49–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Curvers WL, Singh R, Song LM, et al. Endoscopic tri-modal imaging for detection of early neoplasia in Barrett’s oesophagus: a multi-centre feasibility study using high-resolution endoscopy, autofluorescence imaging and narrow band imaging incorporated in one endoscopy system. Gut. 2008;57:167–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Graham DG, Banks MR Advances in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. F1000Res 2015;4.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sharma P, Brill J, Canto M, et al. White paper AGA: advanced imaging in Barrett’s esophagus. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015;13:2209–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zuccaro G, Gladkova N, Vargo J, et al. Optical coherence tomography of the esophagus and proximal stomach in health and disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001;96:2633–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lowe VJ, Booya F, Fletcher JG, et al. Comparison of positron emission tomography, computed tomography, and endoscopic ultrasound in the initial staging of patients with esophageal cancer. Mol Imaging Biol. 2005;7:422–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Committee AT. Confocal laser endomicroscopy. Gastrointest Endosc. 2014;80:928–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Leggett CL, Gorospe EC. Application of confocal laser endomicroscopy in the diagnosis and management of Barrett’s esophagus. Ann Gastroenterol. 2014;27:193–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Canto MI, Anandasabapathy S, Brugge W, et al. In vivo endomicroscopy improves detection of Barrett’s esophagus-related neoplasia: a multicenter international randomized controlled trial (with video). Gastrointest Endosc. 2014;79:211–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Neumann WL, Lujan GM, Genta RM. Gastric heterotopia in the proximal oesophagus (“inlet patch”): Association with adenocarcinomas arising in Barrett mucosa. Dig Liver Dis. 2012;44:292–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wallace MB, Meining A, Canto MI, et al. The safety of intravenous fluorescein for confocal laser endomicroscopy in the gastrointestinal tract. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2010;31:548–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Li CQ, Yu T, Zuo XL, et al. Effects on confocal laser endomicroscopy image quality by different acriflavine concentrations. J Interv Gastroenterol. 2011;1:59–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    George M, Meining A. Cresyl violet as a fluorophore in confocal laser scanning microscopy for future in-vivo histopathology. Endoscopy. 2003;35:585–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kiesslich R, Gossner L, Goetz M, et al. In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;4:979–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sharma P, Meining AR, Coron E, et al. Real-time increased detection of neoplastic tissue in Barrett's esophagus with probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy: final results of an international multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Gastrointest Endosc. 2011;74:465–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bertani H, Frazzoni M, Dabizzi E, et al. Improved detection of incident dysplasia by probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy in a Barrett’s esophagus surveillance program. Dig Dis Sci. 2013;58:188–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wallace M, Lauwers GY, Chen Y, et al. Miami classification for probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy. Endoscopy. 2011;43:882–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gaddam S, Mathur SC, Singh M, et al. Novel probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy criteria and interobserver agreement for the detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011;106:1961–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Tofteland N, Singh M, Gaddam S, et al. Evaluation of the updated confocal laser endomicroscopy criteria for Barrett’s esophagus among gastrointestinal pathologists. Dis Esophagus. 2014;27:623–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Caillol F, Godat S, Poizat F, et al. Probe confocal laser endomicroscopy in the therapeutic endoscopic management of Barrett’s dysplasia. Ann Gastroenterol. 2017;30:295–301.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gupta A, Attar BM, Koduru P, et al. Utility of confocal laser endomicroscopy in identifying high-grade dysplasia and adenocarcinoma in Barrett’s esophagus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014;26:369–77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wu J, Pan YM, Wang TT, et al. Confocal laser endomicroscopy for detection of neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus: a meta-analysis. Dis Esophagus. 2014;27:248–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    • Xiong YQ, Ma SJ, Zhou JH, et al. A meta-analysis of confocal laser endomicroscopy for the detection of neoplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;31:1102–10 A meta-analysis showing that CLE significantly increases the detection of esophageal neoplasia compared to NBI.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Xiong YQ, Ma SJ, Hu HY, et al. Comparison of narrow-band imaging and confocal laser endomicroscopy for the detection of neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus: a meta-analysis. Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol. 2018;42:31–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wallace MB, Crook JE, Saunders M, et al. Multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of confocal laser endomicroscopy assessment of residual metaplasia after mucosal ablation or resection of GI neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus. Gastrointest Endosc. 2012;76:539–47 e1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Evans JA, Poneros JM, Bouma BE, et al. Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;4:38–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Leggett CL, Gorospe EC, Chan DK, et al. Comparative diagnostic performance of volumetric laser endomicroscopy and confocal laser endomicroscopy in the detection of dysplasia associated with Barrett’s esophagus. Gastrointest Endosc. 2016;83:880–8 e2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Gupta N, Siddiqui U, Waxman I, et al. Use of volumetric laser endomicroscopy for dysplasia detection at the gastroesophageal junction and gastric cardia. World J Gastrointest Endosc. 2017;9:319–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Swager AF, de Groof AJ, Meijer SL, et al. Feasibility of laser marking in Barrett’s esophagus with volumetric laser endomicroscopy: first-in-man pilot study. Gastrointest Endosc. 2017;86:464–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Trindade AJ, Inamdar S, Smith MS, et al. Learning curve and competence for volumetric laser endomicroscopy in Barrett’s esophagus using cumulative sum analysis. Endoscopy 2017.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Trindade AJ, Inamdar S, Smith MS, et al. Volumetric laser endomicroscopy in Barrett’s esophagus: interobserver agreement for interpretation of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia among high-frequency users. Gastrointest Endosc. 2017;86:133–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kohli DR, Schubert ML, Zfass AM, et al. Performance characteristics of optical coherence tomography in assessment of Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal cancer: systematic review. Dis Esophagus. 2017;30:1–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    • Swager AF, van der Sommen F, Klomp SR, et al. Computer-aided detection of early Barrett's neoplasia using volumetric laser endomicroscopy. Gastrointest Endosc. 2017;86:839–46 Initial report of CAD for VLE images to detect neoplastic lesions in BE achieving 90% sensitivity and 93% specificity on paired images and histology. This awaits prospective clinical application.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Swager AF, Faber DJ, de Bruin DM, et al. Quantitative attenuation analysis for identification of early Barrett’s neoplasia in volumetric laser endomicroscopy. J Biomed Opt. 2017;22:86001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    • Alshelleh M, Inamdar S, McKinley M, et al. Incremental yield of dysplasia detection in Barrett’s esophagus using volumetric laser endomicroscopy with and without laser marking compared with a standardized random biopsy protocol. Gastrointest Endosc 2018. Evidence for increased yield of dysplasia and neoplasia using VLE and laser marking over standard biopsy protocol. Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Shaheen NJ, Sharma P, Overholt BF, et al. Radiofrequency ablation in Barrett’s esophagus with dysplasia. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:2277–88.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Luigiano C, Iabichino G, Eusebi LH, et al. Outcomes of radiofrequency ablation for dysplastic Barrett’s esophagus: a comprehensive review. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2016;4249510:2016.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Tsai TH, Zhou C, Tao YK, et al. Structural markers observed with endoscopic 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography correlating with Barrett’s esophagus radiofrequency ablation treatment response (with videos). Gastrointest Endosc. 2012;76:1104–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Tsai TH, Zhou C, Lee HC, et al. Comparison of tissue architectural changes between radiofrequency ablation and cryospray ablation in Barrett’s esophagus using endoscopic three-dimensional optical coherence tomography. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2012;684832:2012.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lee HC, Ahsen OO, Liu JJ, et al. Assessment of the radiofrequency ablation dynamics of esophageal tissue with optical coherence tomography. J Biomed Opt. 2017;22:76001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Adler DC, Zhou C, Tsai TH, et al. Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus and buried glands beneath neosquamous epithelium following radiofrequency ablation. Endoscopy. 2009;41:773–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Basavappa M, Weinberg A, Huang Q, et al. Markers suggest reduced malignant potential of subsquamous intestinal metaplasia compared with Barrett’s esophagus. Dis Esophagus. 2014;27:262–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ughi GJ, Gora MJ, Swager AF, et al. Automated segmentation and characterization of esophageal wall in vivo by tethered capsule optical coherence tomography endomicroscopy. Biomed Opt Express. 2016;7:409–19.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Liang K, Ahsen OO, Lee HC, et al. Volumetric mapping of Barrett’s esophagus and dysplasia with en face optical coherence tomography tethered capsule. Am J Gastroenterol. 2016;111:1664–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Standish BA, Lee KK, Mariampillai A, et al. In vivo endoscopic multi-beam optical coherence tomography. Phys Med Biol. 2010;55:615–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ahsen OO, Lee HC, Giacomelli MG, et al. Correction of rotational distortion for catheter-based en face OCT and OCT angiography. Opt Lett. 2014;39:5973–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Tsai TH, Lee HC, Ahsen OO, et al. Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography for gastroenterology. Biomed Opt Express. 2014;5:4387–404.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lee HC, Ahsen OO, Liang K, et al. Endoscopic optical coherence tomography angiography microvascular features associated with dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus (with video). Gastrointest Endosc. 2017;86:476–84 e3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ahsen OO, Lee HC, Liang K, et al. Ultrahigh-speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography and angiography enables delineation of lateral margins of endoscopic mucosal resection: a case report. Ther Adv Gastroenterol. 2017;10:931–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Chen C, Cheng KH, Jakubovic R, et al. High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part V): optimal utilization of multi-beam scanning for Doppler and speckle variance microvascular imaging. Opt Express. 2017;25:7761–77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Liang K, Ahsen OO, Wang Z, et al. Endoscopic forward-viewing optical coherence tomography and angiography with MHz swept source. Opt Lett. 2017;42:3193–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    • Zhao Y, Eldridge WJ, Maher JR, et al. Dual-axis optical coherence tomography for deep tissue imaging. Opt Lett. 2017;42:2302–5 Recent example of multimodal imaging combining improvement in LCI with OCT for enhanced imaging on animal models.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Villiger M, Lorenser D, McLaughlin RA, et al. Deep tissue volume imaging of birefringence through fibre-optic needle probes for the delineation of breast tumour. Sci Rep. 2016;6:28771.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Liang S, Ma T, Jing J, et al. Trimodality imaging system and intravascular endoscopic probe: combined optical coherence tomography, fluorescence imaging and ultrasound imaging. Opt Lett. 2014;39:6652–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Lee D, Lee C, Kim S, et al. In vivo near infrared virtual intraoperative surgical photoacoustic optical coherence tomography. Sci Rep. 2016;6:35176.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Shang S, Chen Z, Zhao Y, et al. Simultaneous imaging of atherosclerotic plaque composition and structure with dual-mode photoacoustic and optical coherence tomography. Opt Express. 2017;25:530–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Tang Q, Wang J, Frank A, et al. Depth-resolved imaging of colon tumor using optical coherence tomography and fluorescence laminar optical tomography. Biomed Opt Express. 2016;7:5218–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Chen Z, Yang S, Xing D. Optically integrated trimodality imaging system: combined all-optical photoacoustic microscopy, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescence imaging. Opt Lett. 2016;41:1636–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Qi X, Pan Y, Sivak MV, et al. Image analysis for classification of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography. Biomed Opt Express. 2010;1:825–47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Qiu L, Pleskow DK, Chuttani R, et al. Multispectral scanning during endoscopy guides biopsy of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus. Nat Med. 2010;16:603–6 1p following 606.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Wax A, Terry NG, Dellon ES, et al. Angle-resolved low coherence interferometry for detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus. Gastroenterology. 2011;141:443–7 447 e1–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    • Steelman ZA, Ho D, Chu KK, et al. Scanning system for angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry. Opt Lett. 2017;42:4581–4 Recent advance in LCI allowing for broader field of view.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kim S, Heflin S, Kresty LA, et al. Analyzing spatial correlations in tissue using angle-resolved low coherence interferometry measurements guided by co-located optical coherence tomography. Biomed Opt Express. 2016;7:1400–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Lovat LB, Johnson K, Mackenzie GD, et al. Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus. Gut. 2006;55:1078–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Pan QJ, Roth MJ, Guo HQ, et al. Cytologic detection of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and its precursor lesions using balloon samplers and liquid-based cytology in asymptomatic adults in Llinxian, China. Acta Cytol. 2008;52:14–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    • Moinova HR, LaFramboise T, Lutterbaugh JD, et al. Identifying DNA methylation biomarkers for non-endoscopic detection of Barrett’s esophagus. Sci Transl Med 2018;10. Introduction of a swallowable balloon-based sampling device for non-endoscopic BE screening with detection of abnormal cytosine methylation in the CCNA1 and vimentin DNA loci which, together, detects BE with 90.3% sensitivity and 91.7% specificity. Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Becker L, Huang Q, Mashimo H. Lgr5, an intestinal stem cell marker, is abnormally expressed in Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Dis Esophagus. 2010;23:168–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Bennett M, Mashimo H. Molecular markers and imaging tools to identify malignant potential in Barrett’s esophagus. World J Gastrointest Pathophysiol. 2014;5:438–49.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Vennalaganti PR, Naag Kanakadandi V, Gross SA, et al. Inter-observer agreement among pathologists using wide-area transepithelial sampling with computer-assisted analysis in patients with Barrett’s esophagus. Am J Gastroenterol. 2015;110:1257–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Critchley-Thorne RJ, Davison JM, Prichard JW, et al. A Tissue systems pathology test detects abnormalities associated with prevalent high-grade dysplasia and esophageal cancer in Barrett’s esophagus. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2017;26:240–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hsiung PL, Wang T. In vivo biomarkers for targeting colorectal neoplasms. Cancer Biomark. 2008;4:329–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Technology Committee ASGE, Thosani N, Abu Dayyeh BK, et al. ASGE Technology Committee systematic review and meta-analysis assessing the ASGE Preservation and Incorporation of Valuable Endoscopic Innovations thresholds for adopting real-time imaging-assisted endoscopic targeted biopsy during endoscopic surveillance of Barrett's esophagus. Gastrointest Endosc. 2016;83:684–98 e7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    • Scholvinck DW, van der Meulen K, Bergman J, et al. Detection of lesions in dysplastic Barrett’s esophagus by community and expert endoscopists. Endoscopy. 2017;49:113–20 Another more recent study showing poorer endoscopic detection of dysplastic and neoplastic BE in community hospitals compared to expert centers.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© This is a U.S. Government work and not under copyright protection in the US; foreign copyright protection may apply 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.VA Boston HealthcareHarvard Medical SchoolWest RoxburyUSA

Personalised recommendations