The Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge of Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia

  • Paul Rider
  • John Hunter
  • Leander Grimm
Large Intestine (B Cash, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Large Intestine


Purpose of Review

No single modality of care serves as the defined best practice for the treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). This review aims to present the common treatment modalities germane to AIN while considering evolving evidence.

Recent Findings

AIN affords an opportunity to evaluate and treat patients before the development of invasive diseases. Efforts to screen for AIN have yielded mixed results. The major available pharmacotheraputic and surgical options offer efficacious options to reduce the bioburden of disease but can be met with high levels of recurrent disease. None affords a predictably durable response in severe disease.


Vaccination as primary prevention will likely reduce the overall upward trend in AIN. Evidence suggests vaccination also affords improvement in recurrent disease. Early evidence reveals potential benefit in multimodal approaches to control AIN. Valuable data is anticipated from the phase III, randomized ANCHOR study evaluating the management of high-grade AIN in HIV +patients.


AIN Anal intraepithelial neoplasia HPV Human papilloma virus 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Surgery, Division of Colon and Rectal SurgeryUniversity of South AlabamaMobileUSA

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