Dietary Fat and the Genetic Risk of Type 2 Diabetes
Purpose of Review
We review recent evidence of the relationship between dietary fat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), the role of epigenetic alterations as a mediator of this relationship, and the impact of gene-dietary fat interactions in the development of the disease. Based on the observations made, we will discuss whether there is evidence to support genetic personalization of fat intake recommendations in T2D prevention.
Strong evidence suggests that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have a protective effect on T2D risk, whereas the roles of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (SFA and MUFA) remain unclear. Diets enriched with PUFA vs SFA lead to distinct epigenetic alterations that may mediate their effects on T2D risk by changing gene function. However, it is not currently known which of the epigenetic alterations, if any, are causal for T2D. The current literature shows no replicated evidence of genetic variants modifying the effect of dietary fat intake on T2D risk.
There is consistent evidence of a protective role of PUFA in T2D prevention. No evidence supports genetic personalization of dietary recommendations in T2D prevention.
KeywordsDietary fat Fatty acid composition Gene Genetic risk Epigenetics Type 2 diabetes
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Germán D. Carrasquilla and Hermina Jakupović declare that they have no conflict of interest. Tuomas O. Kilpeläinen reports grants from Novo Nordisk Foundation.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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