Current Diabetes Reports

, 19:122 | Cite as

Replacing Pumps with Light Controlled Insulin Delivery

  • Simon H. FriedmanEmail author
Therapies and New Technologies in the Treatment of Diabetes (M Pietropaolo, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Therapies and New Technologies in the Treatment of Diabetes


Purpose of Review

The aim of this review is to summarize the development of the photoactivated depot (PAD) approach for the minimally invasive and continuously variable delivery of insulin.

Recent Findings

Using an insulin PAD, we have demonstrated that we can release native, bioactive insulin into diabetic animals in response to light signals from a small external LED light source. We have further shown that this released insulin retains bioactivity and reduces blood glucose. In addition, we have designed and constructed second generation materials that have high insulin densities, with the potential for multiple day delivery.


The PAD approach for insulin therapy holds promise for addressing the pressing need for continuously variable delivery methods that do not rely on pumps, and their myriad associated problems.


Insulin Protein delivery Light Glucagon Depot Insulin pump Artificial pancreas 



The work reviewed in this article was largely executed by a group of talented and dedicated graduate students. They are: Piyush K. Jain, Dipu Karunakaran, Bhagyesh R. Sarode, Karthik Nadendla, Swetha Chintala, Parth Shah and Mayank Sharma.

In addition all animal studies were performed in collaboration with Professor Karen Kover (Childrens’ Mercy Hospital, Kansas City).

The work was funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number DP3DK106921 as well as the support of a University of Missouri Fast Track Award and the UMKC School of Pharmacy Dean’s Bridge Fund.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Simon H. Friedman has a patent issued (US 10159735), and a patent pending (on Drug Conjugates with Photocleavable Solubility Modulators).

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

All reported studies/experiments with human or animal subjects performed by the authors have been previously published and complied with all applicable ethical standards (including the Helsinki declaration and its amendments, institutional/national research committee standards, and international/national/institutional guidelines).


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of Missouri-Kansas City, School of PharmacyKansas CityUSA

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