Current Diabetes Reports

, 19:95 | Cite as

Imaging and Biomarkers in Diabetic Macular Edema and Diabetic Retinopathy

  • Changyow C. Kwan
  • Amani A. FawziEmail author
Microvascular Complications—Retinopathy (DL Chao and G Yiu, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Microvascular Complications—Retinopathy


Purpose of Review

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of acquired vision loss in adults across the globe. Early identification and treatment of patients with DR is paramount for vision preservation. The aim of this review paper is to outline current and new imaging techniques and biomarkers that are valuable for clinical diagnosis and management of DR.

Recent Findings

Ultrawide field imaging and automated deep learning algorithms are recent advancements on traditional fundus photography and fluorescein angiography. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography are techniques that image retinal anatomy and vasculature and OCT is routinely used to monitor response to treatment. Many circulating, vitreous, and genetic biomarkers have been studied to facilitate disease detection and development of new treatments.


Recent advancements in retinal imaging and identification of promising new biomarkers for DR have the potential to increase detection, risk stratification, and treatment for patients with DR.


Diabetic retinopathy Diabetic macular edema Biomarkers Retinal imaging 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

All reported studies/experiments with human or animal subjects performed by the authors have been previously published and complied with all applicable ethical standards including the Helsinki declaration and its amendments, institutional/national research committee standards, and international/national/institutional guidelines.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology, Feinberg School of MedicineNorthwestern UniversityChicagoUSA

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