Regulation of Hepatic Metabolism, Recent Advances, and Future Perspectives
Purpose of Review
The purpose of this review is to provide a brief summary of recent advances in our understanding of liver metabolism. The critical role of the liver in controlling whole-body energy homeostasis makes such understanding crucial to efficiently design new treatments for metabolic syndrome diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D).
Significant advances have been made regarding our understanding of the direct and indirect effects of insulin on hepatic metabolism and the communication between the liver and other tissues. Moreover, the catabolic functions of glucagon, as well as the importance of hepatic redox status for the regulation of glucose production, are emerging as potential targets to reduce hyperglycemia.
A resolution to the long-standing question “insulin suppression of hepatic glucose production, direct or indirect effect?” is starting to emerge. New advances in our understanding of important fasting-induced hepatic metabolic fluxes may help design better therapies for T2D.
KeywordsLiver Insulin Glucagon Glucose homeostasis Diabetes Metabolism
This work was financially supported by the NIH grants (R01DK081418, R01DK089883, and R01DK117655) to P.P, The Chares King Postdoctoral Fellowship to K.S, and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) Postdoctoral Fellowship to C.D.J.T.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Kfir Sharabi and Pere Puigserver have a pending patent to DFCI on selective inhibition of gluconeogenic activity.
Clint D. J. Tavares declares that he has no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance
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