Current Diabetes Reports

, 19:100 | Cite as

Emerging Insights and Interventions for Diabetic Retinopathy

  • Avinash Honasoge
  • Eric Nudleman
  • Morton Smith
  • Rithwick RajagopalEmail author
Microvascular Complications—Retinopathy (DL Chao and G Yiu, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Microvascular Complications—Retinopathy


Purpose of Review

To introduce recent advances in the understanding of diabetic retinopathy and to summarize current and emerging strategies to treat this common and complex cause of vision loss.

Recent Findings

Advances in retinal imaging and functional analysis indicate that retinal vascular and neural pathologies exist long before the development of clinically visible retinopathy. Such diagnostics could facilitate risk stratification and selective early intervention in high-risk patients. Antagonists of the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway effectively reduce vision loss in diabetes and promote regression of disease severity. Promising new strategies to treat diabetic retinopathy involve novel systemic diabetes therapy and ocular therapies that antagonize angiogenic growth factor signaling, improve blood-retina barrier function and neurovascular coupling, modulate neuroretinal metabolism, or provide neuroprotection.


Long considered a pure microvasculopathy, diabetic retinopathy in fact affects the neural and vascular retina as well as neurovascular communication. Emerging therapies include those that target neuroretinal dysfunction in addition to those modulating vascular biology.


Diabetic retinopathy Diabetic macular edema Neuroretinopathy Neurovascular coupling Vascular endothelial growth factor 


Funding Information

Eric Nudleman reports grants from the National Eye Institute (5K08EY028999-02). Rithwick Rajagopal reports grants from the National Eye Institute (K08EY025269) and grants from the Research to Prevent Blindness (Career Development Award).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Avinash Honasoge, Eric Nudleman, Morton Smith, and Rithwick Rajagopal declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Avinash Honasoge
    • 1
  • Eric Nudleman
    • 2
  • Morton Smith
    • 1
  • Rithwick Rajagopal
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology and Visual SciencesWashington University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.Shiley Eye InstituteUniversity of California, San DiegoLa JollaUSA

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