Care of Children and Adolescents with Diabetes Mellitus and Hyperglycemia in the Inpatient Setting
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Purpose of Review
Children and adolescents with acute hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus frequently have acute, potentially life-threatening presentations which require high-acuity care in an inpatient and often intensive care setting. This review discusses the evaluation and care of hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus in hospitalized children in both critical and non-critical care settings, highlighting important differences in their care relative to adults.
Diabetic ketoacidosis remains highly prevalent at diagnosis among children with type 1 diabetes, and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state is increasingly prevalent among children with type 2 diabetes. Recent clinical trials have investigated the potential benefits of various types of intravenous fluids and their rates of administration as well as the risks and benefits of intensive glucose control in critically ill children. The Endocrine Society has developed guidelines focused on managing hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state, outlining important aspects of care shown to decrease morbidity and mortality. In the non-critical illness setting, intensive therapy on newly diagnosed diabetes is increasingly recommended at the outset.
With the increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents, recent studies addressing acute diabetes emergencies help inform best practices for care of hospitalized children with hyperglycemia and diabetes.
KeywordsPediatric diabetes Inpatient Hyperglycemia New-onset diabetes Diabetic ketoacidosis Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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