Adaptive Intervention Designs to Promote Behavioral Change in Adults: What Is the Evidence?
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Purpose of Review
Adaptive behavioral interventions tailor the type or dose of intervention strategies to individuals over time to improve saliency and intervention efficacy. This review describes the unique characteristics of adaptive intervention designs, summarizes recent diabetes-related prevention studies, which used adaptive designs, and offers recommendations for future research.
Eight adaptive intervention studies were reported since 2013 to reduce sedentary behavior or improve weight management in overweight or obese adults. Primarily, feasibility studies were conducted. Preliminary results suggest that just-in-time adaptive interventions can reduce sedentary behavior or increase minutes of physical activity through repeated prompts. A stepped-down weight management intervention did not increase weight loss compared to a fixed intervention. Other adaptive interventions to promote weight management are underway and require further evaluation.
Additional research is needed to target a broader range of health-related behaviors, identify optimal decision points and dose for intervention, develop effective engagement strategies, and evaluate outcomes using randomized trials.
KeywordsAdaptive intervention Just-in-time adaptive intervention Sequential multiple assignment randomized trial Weight management Physical activity
The author thanks Dr. Brian Focht for helpful comments on an earlier version of this manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Carla K. Miller declares that she has no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
All reported studies/experiments with human or animal subjects performed by the authors have been previously published and complied with all applicable ethical standards (including the Helsinki Declaration and its amendments, institutional/national research committee standards, and international/national/institutional guidelines).
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: •• Of major importance
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