Enteroviral Infections as a Trigger for Type 1 Diabetes
Purpose of Review
To provide an overview of studies that have detected enteroviruses (EV) in samples from people with type 1 diabetes (T1D), the techniques they have used, and which challenges they have encountered.
Recent studies have detected EVs in serum, blood, stools, nasal swabs, and pancreas of people with T1D before or around clinical onset of disease, indicating that an association between EV infections and T1D exists. However, definitive evidence for its role as disease triggers is lacking. Recent access to human samples is starting to provide the necessary tools to define their role in disease pathogenesis. Emerging evidence suggests that chronic infections take place in the pancreas of diabetic donors. However, the development of sensitive techniques able to detect low amounts of viral protein and RNA still constitute a major challenge for the field.
New evidence at the protein, RNA, and host immune response level suggests a role for EV infections in the development of autoimmunity. In the upcoming years, new technologies, collaborative efforts, and therapeutic interventions are likely to find a definitive answer for their role in disease pathogenesis.
KeywordsEnteroviruses Type 1 diabetes IFN-response Viral protein Viral RNA
Type 1 diabetes
Human leukocyte antigen class I
Insulin containing islet
Insulin deficient islet
Network for Pancreatic Organ Donors with Diabetes
In situ hybridization
Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction
T.R-C is supported by a research grant from Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen and a JDRF research grant awarded to the nPOD-V consortium (JDRF 25-2012-516).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Teresa Rodriguez-Calvo declares that she has no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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