Nutrigenetics of Blood Cholesterol Concentrations: Towards Personalized Nutrition
Purpose of the Review
To summarize achievements made in the field of nutrigenetics to personalized nutrition. Moreover, the limitations and challenges observed to enable clinical utilization are discussed.
Currently, with the availability of low-cost genetic testing and new bioinformatics tools, significant developments have occurred to allow issues inherent to the highly complex nature of genetic data to be tackled. Moreover, new statistical methods have uncovered combinatory patterns of SNPs that collectively explain the high interindividual variability in response to dietary interventions. Yet, the application of these results to personalized dietary recommendations is not straightforward.
Data from gene-nutrient interaction studies have provided evidence to understand the inter-individual variation differences in blood cholesterol responses. A need exists for guidelines and regulations in order to apply nutrigenetics to personalized nutrition. Moreover, a multisystem approach including genetics, microbiome and environment is needed to achieve possible practical applications.
KeywordsGene-nutrient interactions Lipid Cardiovascular disease Single nucleotide polymorphisms Genetic variant
The authors thank Stephanie Jew for her helpful input and for her scientific writing assistance in the development of this article.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Itzel Vazquez-Vidal and Charles Desmarchelier declare that they have no conflict of interest. Peter J. H Jones has received research grants from Nutritional Fundamentals for Health Inc., Mitacs, and the International Life Sciences Institute. He also owns stock in Nutritional Fundamentals for Health Inc.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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