Echocardiography in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

  • Francesco Ferrara
  • Xiao Zhou
  • Luna Gargani
  • Karina Wierzbowska-Drabik
  • Olga Vriz
  • Bahaa M. Fadel
  • Anna Agnese Stanziola
  • Jaroslaw Kasprzak
  • Mani Vannan
  • Eduardo BossoneEmail author
Echocardiography (JM Gardin and AH Waller, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Echocardiography


Purpose of Review

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease which can result in right heart (RH) failure and death. Herein, we discuss the current clinical applications of echocardiography in PAH.

Recent Findings

Advanced echocardiographic techniques (strain, strain rate, 2D-speckle tracking strain, and three-dimensional echocardiography) may reveal in the near future additional important insights into RH structure and function.


Although right-heart catheterization is mandatory for a definitive diagnosis, echocardiography (resting and exercise) represents a key noninvasive imaging test on the diagnostic-prognostic-therapeutic PAH algorithm.


Echocardiography Pulmonary arterial hypertension Exercise Doppler echocardiography Strain Three-dimensional echocardiography 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Francesco Ferrara, Xiao Zhou, Karina Wierzbowska-Drabik, Olga Vriz, Bahaa M. Fadel, Anna Agnese Stanziola, Jaroslaw Kasprzak, Mani Vannan, and Eduardo Bossone declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Luna Gargani reports speaker honoraria from General Electric and Glaxo-Smith-Kline.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francesco Ferrara
    • 1
  • Xiao Zhou
    • 2
  • Luna Gargani
    • 3
  • Karina Wierzbowska-Drabik
    • 4
  • Olga Vriz
    • 5
  • Bahaa M. Fadel
    • 5
  • Anna Agnese Stanziola
    • 6
  • Jaroslaw Kasprzak
    • 4
  • Mani Vannan
    • 7
  • Eduardo Bossone
    • 8
    Email author
  1. 1.Cardiology Division, “Cava de’ Tirreni and Amalfi Coast” Hospital, Heart DepartmentUniversity of SalernoSalernoItaly
  2. 2.Department of CardiologyChinese PLA General HospitalBeijingChina
  3. 3.Institute of Clinical Physiology—C.N.R.PisaItaly
  4. 4.Department of Cardiology, Bieganski HospitalMedical University of LodzLodzPoland
  5. 5.Heart Centre, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research CentreRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  6. 6.Department of Respiratory Diseases, Monaldi HospitalUniversity “Federico II”NaplesItaly
  7. 7.Department of Cardiovascular ImagingPiedmont Heart InstituteAtlantaUSA
  8. 8.Division of CardiologyA. Cardarelli HospitalNaplesItaly

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