Short- and Long-term Mortality Risk After Acute Pulmonary Embolism
Purpose of Review
Acute pulmonary embolism is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA and throughout the world. This review will summarize recent developments in short- and long-term mortality risk assessment after an acute pulmonary embolism.
Recent guidelines have emphasized risk stratification of acute PE patients on the basis of blood pressure, right ventricular size, and biomarker status. Ongoing work is testing various acute treatment strategies for improvement of symptom burden, length of stay, quality of life, and possibly mortality risk reduction. Long-term outcomes among subjects with acute PE are less well studied. Long-term mortality largely correlates with baseline co-morbidity burden, although there may be an association between acute PE severity and long-term outcomes.
Acute PE risk stratification and treatment, as well as long-term follow-up of patients with acute PE, are rapidly developing areas and many promising innovations are underway.
KeywordsPulmonary embolism Risk stratification Mortality Thrombolysis Submassive
Deep venous thrombosis
Simplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index
Systolic blood pressure
International Cooperative Pulmonary Embolism Registry
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
Brain natriuretic peptide
Thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension
Right ventricular systolic pressure
Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion
European Society of Cardiology
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Rajesh Gupta, Dylan D. Fortman, and Daniel R. Morgenstern declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Christopher J. Cooper reports a patent pending.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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