Current Cardiology Reports

, 20:135 | Cite as

Short- and Long-term Mortality Risk After Acute Pulmonary Embolism

  • Rajesh GuptaEmail author
  • Dylan D. Fortman
  • Daniel R. Morgenstern
  • Christopher J. Cooper
Peripheral Vascular Disease (CJ Cooper and R Gupta, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Peripheral Vascular Disease


Purpose of Review

Acute pulmonary embolism is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA and throughout the world. This review will summarize recent developments in short- and long-term mortality risk assessment after an acute pulmonary embolism.

Recent Findings

Recent guidelines have emphasized risk stratification of acute PE patients on the basis of blood pressure, right ventricular size, and biomarker status. Ongoing work is testing various acute treatment strategies for improvement of symptom burden, length of stay, quality of life, and possibly mortality risk reduction. Long-term outcomes among subjects with acute PE are less well studied. Long-term mortality largely correlates with baseline co-morbidity burden, although there may be an association between acute PE severity and long-term outcomes.


Acute PE risk stratification and treatment, as well as long-term follow-up of patients with acute PE, are rapidly developing areas and many promising innovations are underway.


Pulmonary embolism Risk stratification Mortality Thrombolysis Submassive 



Pulmonary embolism


Deep venous thrombosis


Venous thromboembolism


Simplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index


Systolic blood pressure


Heart rate


Right ventricle


Left ventricle


International Cooperative Pulmonary Embolism Registry


Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation


Brain natriuretic peptide


Thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension


Right ventricular systolic pressure


Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion


European Society of Cardiology


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Rajesh Gupta, Dylan D. Fortman, and Daniel R. Morgenstern declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Christopher J. Cooper reports a patent pending.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rajesh Gupta
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dylan D. Fortman
    • 2
  • Daniel R. Morgenstern
    • 2
  • Christopher J. Cooper
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular MedicineUniversity of Toledo Medical CenterToledoUSA
  2. 2.College of Medicine and Life SciencesUniversity of ToledoToledoUSA

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